Define and compare sensation and perception | Online Assignments

Text: Psychology Core Concepts: Zimbardo, Johnson and Hamilton 7TH EDITION (978-0-205183463) I cant found the text online maybe you can


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Or You can access The Discovering Psychology video series on the internet for free!



  1. Go to
  2. Click on the blue tab near the top that reads “view programs”
  3. Many film series will be listed. They are in alphabetical order. Scroll down to Discovering Psychology: Updated Edition. Click on it.
  4. All 26 episodes from the series are listed in order. Double click on the box that says “VoD” next to the episode you wish to view. That’s it!


    Type 1 page for each ½ hour video unit where you submit bullets outlining the content of each ½ hour lecture (not more than one page in length) AND, SEPARATELY, ANSWER ALL LEARNING OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS FROM THE ATTACHED/ENCLOSED PACKET( state each question before each of your responses. Make sure you cite page references from the text for each of your answers).




    Week 8 Nov. 4 videos/Obj. units 15,16

    Week 9 Nov.11 videos/Obj. units 17,18

    Week 10 Nov. 18 videos/Obj. units 19,20

    Week 4 Oct. 7 videos/Obj. units 7,8         Week 11 Nov. 25 videos/Obj. units 21/22

    Week 5 Oct. 14 videos/Obj. units 9,10     Week 12 Dec. 2 videos/Obj. units 23/24

    Week 6 Oct. 21 videos/Obj. units 11,12     Week 13 Dec. 09 videos/Obj. units 25/26


    Week 7 Oct. 28 videos/Obj. units 13,14


Objective 7

After viewing the television program and completing the assigned readings, you should be able to:


1. Define and compare sensation and perception.

2. Describe how a visual stimulus gets translated into “sight” in the brain.

3. Describe the field of psychophysics.

4. Be able to distinguish distal and proximal stimuli.

5. Explain why illusions provide clues to perceptual mechanisms.

6. Describe Gestalt psychology.

7. Describe the phenomenon of perceptual constancy.

8. Describe the psychological dimensions of sound and the physiology of hearing.

9. Describe the difference between top-down and bottom up processing.

10. Discuss the senses of smell, taste and touch.



Objectives 8

After viewing the television program and completing the assigned readings, you should be able to:


1. Define learning.

2. Describe the process of classical conditioning and show how it demonstrates learning by association.

3. Cite examples of extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalizations, and discrimination.

4. Describe the process of operant conditioning.

5. Know the distinction between positive and negative punishment and between positive and negative reinforcement.

6. Describe how observational learning occurs.

7. Discuss the varieties of reinforcement schedules, including fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval and variable interval.

8. Describe cognitive influence on learning.


9. Describe biological constraints on learning and some possible effects that learning can have on the functioning of the body.


Objective 9

After viewing the television program and completing the assigned readings, you should be able to:


1. Define memory.

2. Compare implicit and explicit memory.

3. Compare declarative and procedural memory.

4. Describe the processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval.

5. Describe the characteristics of short-term, long-term, and sensory memory.

6. Define Schema.

7. Describe the accuracy of memory as a reconstructive process.

8. Define amnesia.

9. Describe processes of encoding and retrieval in Long Term Memory (LTM).

10. Describe short term memory (STM), note its limited capacity, and discuss two ways to enhance STM.

11. Compare semantic and episodic memory.

12. Discuss proactive and retroactive interference.

13. Describe chemical and anatomical factors involved in memory.








Objective 10

After viewing the television program and completing the assigned readings, you should be able to:


1. Compare inductive and deductive reasoning.

2. Define the concept, “problem”, in information processing terms and describe some ways to improve problem-solving abilities.

3. Discuss the “historical roots of methods for revealing mental processes.”

4. Describe the study of language production.

5. Explain how ambiguity in language can be resolved.

6. Give several examples of how context influences language and understanding.

7. Explain the role of visual imagery in cognition.

8. Discuss the importance of prototypes and schemas in cognition.

9. Describe what we know about the relation between cognition and brain activity.


Objective 11

After viewing the television program and completing the assigned readings, you should be able to:


1. Describe contrasting views of why human thinking is irrational and prone to error.

2. Explain the notions of heuristic thinking and analytical thinking.

3. Compare definitions of problem solving and decision making.

4. Describe the anchoring bias, availability heuristic, and representativeness heuristic.

5. Discuss why the way a problem is framed can influence a decision.

6. Define decision aversion.

7. Describe how risk affects decision making.

8. Describe at least one way in which memory and decision making can affect each other.


Objective 12

After viewing the television program and completing the assigned readings, you should be able to:


1. Compare emotion and motivation and describe their interrelationships.

2. Describe three theories concerning the sources of motivation.

3. Discuss some of the forces that drive the motivation to eat.

4. Describe some of the factors behind the motivation for sex.

5. Define the need for achievement.

6. Outline the attributions for success and failure in terms of a locus of control orientation.

7. Describe the major theories of emotion and the universality of its expression.

8. Describe the relationship between physical states and the experience of emotions.












Objectives 13


After viewing the program and completing the reading assignment, you should be able to:


1. Describe the functions of consciousness.

2. Describe the different levels of consciousness and the kinds of processing that occur at each level.

3. Define circadian rhythms and describe their relation to the 24-hour day cycle.

4. Describe the stages of sleep.

5. Identify the major sleep disorders and the effects of sleep deprivation.

6. Discuss the difference between night dreaming and day dreaming, and describe lucid dreaming.

7. Explain Freud’s theory of dreaming and contrast it with the Hobson-McCarley theory and the information-processing theory.

8. Give examples of the difference between a dream’s manifest content and latent content.

9. Describe the issues concerning sleep that will arise as people’s lives become more driven and as world travel becomes easier.



Objectives 14


After viewing the program and completing the reading assignment, you should be able to:


1. Describe hypnotic techniques, experiences, and applications.

2. Explain the difference between psychological dependence and physical addiction.

3. Define the major drug categories, and compare the effects of specific drugs, such as stimulants and depressants.

4. List and describe the characteristics of the various extended states of consciousness, such as lucid dreaming, hypnosis, mediation, hallucinations, and drug use.

5. Describe the three levels of consciousness.

6. Explain the phenomenon of “discovered memory.”




Objectives 15


After viewing the program and completing the reading assignment, you should be able to:


1. Define personality.

2. Compare type and traits theories of personality.

3. List and describe “The Big Five” dimensions of personality.

4. Describe Freud’s theory of personality development and the role of the id, ego, and superego in the conscious self.

5. Describe how post-Freudian theories differ from Freudian theories.

6. Describe the major humanistic theories and their contribution.

7. Describe social learning and cognitive theories and their contribution.

8. List the five most important differences in assumptions about personality across theoretical perspectives.

9. Compare the value and accuracy of standardized and projective tests of personality.






Objectives 16


After viewing the program and completing the reading assignment, you should be able to:


1. Define assessment.

2. Describe several ways to measure the reliability and validity of a psychological test.

3. Identify the contributions of Galton, Binet, Terman and Weschler to the science of measuring intelligence.

4. Explain how IQ is computed.

5. Summarize Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences.

6. Describe the evidence for the genetic and environmental bases of intelligence.

7. List the four methodological techniques used the gather information on a person.

8. Discuss the links among intelligence, creativity, and madness.

9. Explain the function of vocational interest tests.

10. Discuss the controversies surrounding intelligence assessment.





Objectives 17


After viewing the program and completing the reading assignment, you should be able to:


1. Define and compare the difference among these terms: sex, gender, gender identity, and gender role.

2. Explain the role of pheromones in sexual arousal.

3. Describe evolutionary theory as it applies to sexual behavior.

4. Describe the similarities in and differences between males and females in the sexual response cycle and mating.

5. Summarize current research on homosexuality.



Objectives 18


After viewing the program and completing the reading assignment, you should be able to:


1. Describe Erikson’s eight psychosocial stages.

2. List the physical changes associated with aging.

3. Summarize the tasks of adolescence.

4. Discuss the central concerns of adulthood.

5. List the strengths and weaknesses of Kohlberg’s cognitive approach to moral development, describe the controversies around the issues of gender and cultural differences in moral judgment, and discuss the distinction between moral behavior and moral judgment.

6. Identify cultural factors that place youth at risk for unhealthy development.

7. Discuss the importance of attachment in social development.

8. List the biological and social factors that can affect health and sexuality in later life.

9. Describe the risk factors for an elderly person in a nursing home.






Objectives 19


After viewing the program and completing the reading assignment, you should be able to:


1. Describe Philip Zimbardo’s prison experiment and his conclusions about how people’s behavior is constrained by social situations.

2. Describe Solmon Asch’s experiment and his conclusions on the conditions that promote conformity.

3. Compare the major leadership styles in Lewin’s experiment and describe their effects on each group of boys.

4. Describe Stanley Milgram’s obedience experiments and his conclusions about conditions that promote blind obedience.

5. Describe the phenomenon of bystander intervention and how it reflects another aspect of situational forces.

6. Describe Serge Moscovici’s work on the influence of the minority on the majority.


7. Discuss various factors that contribute to aggressive behavior.

8. Explain why experimental research is necessary for understanding social influences on behavior.


Objectives 20


After viewing the program and completing the reading assignment, you should be able to:


1. Explain the fundamental attribution error.

2. Describe attribution theory.

3. Explain self-perception theory.

4. Summarize Rosenthal’s experiment that demonstrates the Pygmalion effect and explain its relation to self-fulfilling prophecies.

5. Describe the effect of cognitive dissonance on behavior and attitude change.

6. Describe the techniques used by cults to maintain control over their members.




Objectives 21


After viewing the program and completing the reading assignment, you should be able to:


1. Identify the seven criteria commonly used to determine abnormal behavior.

2. Describe the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and how it is used.

3. Explain how psychological disorders are classified.

4. List and describe the major types of psychological disorders.

5. List the biological and psychological approaches to studying the etiology of psychopathology.

6. Summarize the genetic and psychosocial research related to the origins of schizophrenia, including subtypes and etiology.

7. Identify sources of error in judgments of mental illness.

8. Discuss stigmas against mental illness and how they can be overcome.






Objectives 22


After viewing the program and completing the reading assignment, you should be able to:


1. Describe early approaches to identifying and treating mental illness.

2. Identify the major approaches to psychotherapy.

3. Describe how psychiatrists, psychoanalysts, and clinical psychologists differ in their training and therapeutic orientations.

4. Identify the major features of psychoanalysts and explain the purposes of each.

5. Explain the goals of various behavior therapies.

6. Describe how counterconditioning can be used effectively to treat phobias.

7. Summarize the major rationale behind all types of cognitive therapies.

8. Describe the use of psychosurgery and electroconvulsive shock in the treatment of mental illness.

9. Identify the common forms of drug therapy and how they have changed the mental health system.

10. Summarize research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy.

11. Summarize the main features of client-centered therapy and Gestalt therapy and how these reflect the existential-humanistic perspective.










Objectives 23


After viewing the program and completing the reading assignment, you should be able to:


1. Define stress and list the major sources of stress.

2. Describe the role of cognitive appraisal in stress.

3. Describe the major physiological stress reactions, including the general adaptation syndrome.

4. Explain the relationship between stress and illness.

5. Describe various kinds of events that can lead to psychological stress.

6. Describe the types of coping strategies in coping with stress.

7. Explain the mind-body relationship in terms of the biopsychosocial model of health and illness.

8. Describe the effects of self-disclosure on health.

9. Describe biofeedback, how it works, and its role in behavioral medicine.

10. Discuss how personality types relate to different health outcomes.

11. List some things you can do to reduce your stress level, promote your health, and protect yourself from job burnout.










Objectives 24


After viewing the program and completing the reading assignment, you should be able to:


1. Describe how psychologists try to improve the human condition through the application of social psychological principles to social problems.

2. Identify at least three important stress factors for space travelers, and discuss how studying those problems can help people on Earth.

3. Define peace psychology and conflict negotiation.

4. Describe the problems faces by legal professionals when children serve as eyewitnesses.

5. Identify several signs that people are not getting enough sleep and identify the risks associated with sleep deprivation.




Objectives 25


After viewing the program and completing the reading assignment, you should be able to:


1. Describe some of the differences between EEG, ERP, CAT, MRI, PET, and fMRI techniques.

2. Describe how fMRI can be used to study visual pathways.

3. Describe some of the brain structures that underlie face recognition.

4. Support the similarity of imagery and perception by discussing the brain activity they have in common.

5. Explain how brain research can be used to help dyslexics learn to process language stimuli more effectively.

6. Describe how studies of the brain can reveal unconscious stereotypes.




Objectives 26


After viewing the program and completing the reading assignment, you should be able to:


1. Describe the differences between Eastern and Western cultures in terms of the weight given to individual and group factors to explain behavior.

2. Cite examples of how the Western value on individualism manifests itself.

3. Describe the African cultural values that have benefited African Americans in their struggle against bigotry.

4. List several factors that put Latino immigrants at risk for depression and alienation.

5. Cite evidence that psychology can help solve some of society’s most perplexing problems and cite evidence to the contrary.

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