Rabdan Academy Great Depression on Society and Government Discussion Assignment 1: Write an organized analytic and argumentative response with depth of kn

Rabdan Academy Great Depression on Society and Government Discussion Assignment 1:

Write an organized analytic and argumentative response with depth of knowledge (500 words) on one! of the following topics.

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Identify and briefly describe the immediate impact of the Great Depression on society and government (list at least 3). Then discuss any two major consequences of this event . In your response you can choose examples from USA or Europe.
Explain the start and conclusion of WW2. What major and lasting developments resulted from it?

Assignment 2:

Answer the following question :

1. Identify any two differences between the beliefs of Lenin (communism) and Hitler (fascism). Make sure you point out clearly in what ways they were different.

at least 50 to 70 words

I uploaded some useful notes

Thank you HISLECTURE 1: (General trends in the first half of 20th century)
Twentieth century 1900-1999
twenty first century 2000 and above
What is a trend? Is social/political/economic, its re occur many times in many countries.
Is an event is trend?
General trend before WW2
1- Science and technology: Charles Darwin (came with the theory of evolution), hetler use these this theory to
justify his actions.
Creationism: The believe of god creations
What you have to be to role the world? Empire, an empire has a colony.
New medical knowledge (Louise Pasteur-find out how to kill the bacteria in cow’s milk
by bowling it. Joseph lister-discover bacteria in hospital that caused infections and
recommends using anti biotics, Dr. Wilhelm roentgen-came up with the X-Ray)
Communications invented in the twentieth century in new forms from telegraph to
telephone to radio to moving pictures(tv).
Birth of automobile (cars) Henry ford make the cars popular and affordable and
invented the Assembly line work. Rise of the era of oil
2- The economy & international relations
Imperialism has a economic impact in the international relations at its height (much of
Asia & Africa was colonized by European powers.) controlling countries and recourses
became a trend which lead to world wars.
Reasons: prestige, natural recourses.
Social trend: industrialization, the prosses of agriculture to an urbanized city.
What impact of industrialization? As a trend has a consequence in the international
relations, which country colonized others to get recourses to produce energy (coal).
The status of women: considered one of the industrialization results (the arise of
women voting (suffragette movement), especially in the WW1) after ww1 in Europe and
France women get the right to vote.
World war one: the origins 1914-1918
In a world war: take place in many places including many countries.
65million soldiers was mobilized, over 10 million died, another 20 million
Causes of ww1: long term cause (nationalism, imperialism, militarism,
alliances) short term cause (assassination in Sarajevo)
Assassination: refers to a murder of important political person (not like any
Nationalism: the believe of a nation, a nation is a group of people who
share different interest and believes. Also its shows who can be your
German nationalism: in 1871 has gained its unifications, before that time,
Germany was a different pieces and tribes and fight each other, one
German prince convinces other princes of other areas to create a union. So,
they build a great navy and get colonies in Africa. They admire to be greater
than Britain empire.
British empire: in 19th century was the dominant European power. In 1900
Germany started to threaten the British empire.
Nationalism of the Austro-Hungarian empire, most of its neighbors are
colonies, they have ethnic groups named (Slavs, ex: Russia, Serbia.). Russia,
Serbia started a movement (pan-Slavism to free the Slavs live in the AustroHungarian.
Imperialism: Militarism: the idea of preparing the country for a war. All British army was
professional, but because of Germany they switched to a Conscripted
Conscripted: force them to work and military training.
Britten: built a navy army, also Germany.
The Germany plan was named by the leader (Schlieffen) was most effective plan in the
ww1. Germany was located between two enemies. The plan was: fight France first, cuz
they have less solders and nock them off and then deal with Russia, but there was a
problem, to get through to France they have to pass by independent kingdom (Belgium)
that was protected by Britten.
Germany, AH, Italy formed a military alliance as did the UK, France, Russia
Sarajevo is the capital of Bosnia, in June 28, 1914 Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by
one person (Princip) of the black hand group was supported by Serbia. AH write a litter to
Serbia to hand over the assassins or they will envied them. Therefore, Serbia asked and
get Russia power, AH get the Germany power.
Germany fight France and go thought Belgian, the Britten help Belgians and Serbia +
Russia fight back Germany and the AH.
Otto von Bismarck: prime minister of Kaiser Wilhelm father
Worker’s rights make a huge political movement of socialism in the 20 first century.
Arms race (militarism)
Tsar of Russia Nicholas II, he didn’t want to be a tsar and leave the military his wife Alexandra was a princess of the east, his
only son Alexis had a hemophilia, they bring Rasputin because the believe he can treat their kid.
Hemophilia: a disease make a wound don’t heal and if a small cut happened the person could blead to died.
Princip join the black hand because he was consider weak by his community
Treaty of Versailles signed with Germany at the Paris peace conference + few different treaties
Treaty of Versailles was aimed specifically for Germany, France split Germany territories and give some to Poland the most
industrial land to them. Also, Germans was only allowed to have 100,000 army sizes. Reparations was also demanded from
Economic problems after ww1(France Germany, etc.)
France want peace but punishing Germany, the USA wanted just peace.
Reparations: financial payment
Treaty of trianon signed with the Austro-Hungarian’s at the Paris peace conference, they lost many territories and
Seven new country appeared and created after ww1(Poland, gechoslavakia, Yugoslavia, Estonia, Latvia, lithvania, Ireland)
The economy:
After the war USA/Canada ware consume good and bay staff like cars: why? Mass production,
easy credit (like a lawn), theses times called Roaring twenties (good times)
Loans from USA, 90% of their loans to bay us goods
Europe cant pay back to the USA
Result: USA suffer the great depression (1929)
Recession: months of low economies: why? Factories start to close, people quit jobs because
the USA couldn’t pay them. And that lead to the depression
The consequences: banks close, people savings lost in the bank, people get evection and
killed themselves. 4million of families was out of government support, No social security.
In 1932 the USA bring a new deal (social security) to help people during the great depression.
Hitler was the saver of Germany during the great depression, he started a program named
public works(building roads, housing, develop volkswagen) he promised to give the people jobs
and breads to eat, and freedom from Versailles treaty (reparations’). Military program, he built
weapons (tanks, guns) going against the treaty.
RUSSIA revolution:
Tsar (king) of Russia Nicholas Romanov the second, was the king since 1884. He thinks the
Russian people were special as a largest Slavic country, and was favorite to the gods. He faced
2 type of problems: domestic and foreign
Domestic: Famine(poverty) in 1890, shortage in food. Because people called serfs (have to work
for rich farmers who own slaves(serfs)), the father of Nichols started a serfdom to free the
serfs, so after he free them they can’t produce food.
Foreign: Russia was aware of Germany because they were growing strong, also they lost a war
against Japanese empire that shows how weak was Russia (1904-1905). The church didn’t
support the tsar, In 1905 women talked to church about food shortage and other complains.
The father of the church leads the people to the tsar palace, the military stooped them, and the
sailors of Potemkin battleship fight against senior officers, that day called (bloody Sunday).
He created a organization to consulted and help his people. Duma (Russian parliament) to make
new laws, give them (granting) the freedom of speech.
The tsar ignored the duma, so the first revolution doesn’t solve the problems of the people, so
another revolution have occur.
The February revolution, happened in march12, 1917, duma declared itself a provisional
government and lead by alexander kerensky, he gives the people freedom and the right for
elections to men and women, he allowed the media for free press, political prisoners get
free by him. Amnesty granted to all political prisoners in march (Lenin, communism:
equality=peace, no classes, no war, no religion. He return to the new Russia, build a political
party and invite political with the same idea and convince others to join them. Peace: Lenin
wanted Russia to pull out from the war, land: take farms from rich people and give it for the
poor so everyone have equal share, bread: everyone get food and not get miserable) and
Abdication the tsar: step down as a king, the end of the tsar rule
the October( Bolshevik) revolution in November 6, 1917. All property wealth was divided
among peasantry, created the “red army” to spread the communism revolution. Lenin sign a
treaty (Brest-Litovsk) with Germany and Italy to give them lands to leave the war, Russia lost
13 of its population and resources. Three causes of the revolution:
1- weakness of the government 2-economic problems 3-the idea of the revolution was
Russian civil war:
Happened between 1918-1921: reds (Lenin forces) vs whites (king forces, supported by the
British) the reds won and its last until 1991. Russia become the first communist country in
the world in the 20th century, then china. In 1922 Russia took back some areas that was
given to Germany, and created the Soviet Union (Russia + other lands nearby was inspired)
Lenin : 1917 was exile (banished) from russia to Swaziland
Kerensky: provisional government (PG)
Home work answers
1-trotsky 5-duma 6-communism 8- Rasputin 9-litovsk 10-bolshivek 11- proletariatworkers
12-blody Sunday 13-white 15-kerensky
2-romonov 3-sikl 4-reds 14-ussr(the soviet union)
Dictatorship in Europe in 1930s: (Germany)
Weimar the new republic after ww1 in Germany.
How did Germans feel about the post-war situation?
Not many like the new republic, because their jobs have been taken from them, and Many
German solders felt that the new republic betray them, because they felt they would won
the war if they get more months, and if no revolution happened and kill the tsar we would
win. Plus the Jewish stap them in the back.
Hetler wrote a book ( my struggle)in jail about problems+ solutions.
Hitler started a political party national Socialist(Nazi party), and had 12 set only, he convince
the people his solutions well be effective, he promise the people with three thing:Freedom of the Versailles treaty: Rearmament , open factory to make weapons and
strength the army,
Purify the German nation: clear German from Jewish + Slavs+ Gypsies(‫)غجر‬+ handicap to be
strong again without foreign races, inspired by Darwin theory of evolution. Plus he
interduce a series of laws of anti-Jewish (Nuremberg laws 1935) no Jewish teach in schools,
and doctors cant treat people.
Rebuild Germany: he will bring back the great Germany after the Weimar rebuplic betray
them and take russia to add more factories and living space. Stalin did not like this,
his party win the most sets (230) and the ruler raise him to become the prime minister of
Germany in 1933
WW2 started (1939)
Germany :
Hitler policies was one of the reasons of war world 2
political unstability : many political parties fights for power by revolution and avoid
elections. Hitler declared him self as the president after the previous one died.
Reichstag (communist)was an organization were consulting with the leader, but hitler
blame them for Germany problems, and burn them because he was threating by them, and
start to destroy all political parties without Nazis.
In 1936 Rhineland was re-militarized and France was scared, and hitler rebuild the German
Failureweakness of Weimar government: encouraged the rise to power of hitler & Nazism
Hitler policies: challenged the European system and union with Austria in 1938. (they was
allies in ww1). Which make Britain and France appeasement: dont fight back. They bay time
to prepare for war, the british think that Hitler actions was reasonable because of harsh
terms of Versailles, and Germany was not the problem but Russia was to Brittan.
Italy had many political parties competing.
Mussolini was the leader of the fascist party, and its aimed to bring back the glory of the
ancient Rome
(Lateran)1929 Vatican City become independent, after a long struggle. They were very
powerful because they have many supportive over the world and Mussolini want to use
these friendships.
Mussolini innated Ethiopia/Abyssinia in 1935 and Libya, he also sent his forces to Spain
Spain their was a civil war and its was supported by Germany & Italy.
Ww2 results:
Death rates:
Japan and Germany treated: after ww1 get occupation (get controlled by) by foreign
militaries controlling economic and military system.
Japan occupation by the US (1945-1952) lasted 7 years after the bombs was drooped by
the US. The Americans don’t want to repeat ww1 mistakes, and ty to teach Japanese to be
good citizens. They but the military leaders of japan on the trail/ court for their war crimes.
They also change japan political system monarchy and edited it, they interduce the
parliament, so the emperor wont have the full control to make decisions and consult more
people. They also make the constitutional monarchy, that mean that the monarchy is
limited by the constitutional. And the third political change, they bring the constitution
which is a documented book of laws that talked about the system of the political system
and the rights of the people, etc…
Also, the us say japan will be a pacifist country ( peaceful country), they wont allowed to
have army or any kind of military forces, but they could have the self defense force, and
promised them to protect them from any outsiders. Many Japanese like the idea, but some
of them don’t want to be a pacifist. The us also make some educational reforms, because
they don’t want to punish them but they want to teach them.
In 1952 the us give japan their independence.
Germany was splited into four allied powers, and berlin the capital was also splitted. The
capital city was located by the soviet union occupation zone, they wanted to combaine all
four zones but the cold war happened, the soviet blockade berlin, and wont allowed
anything in ot out of berlin in 1948. In oreder to help forigns live in berlin, the other zones
by airlifts brining water, food. In 1949 east Germany was created under the soviet union
protication and become a communist system, then in 1955 the west Germany created, and
had a democtareic political system.
The end of ww2 the british and France empire colonies get their independence, by th
1960s/70s get their indepented countries appeard.
The final result was new institutaion was created, the untited state created the united
nations (1945)
The world splits in two camps ( the cold war)
Cold war:Cold war in Europe: countries competed, who has the best system, which one produce the
best economies, since, people. Who can be more likeable for others and gain more friends
Origins of the cold war: ideological differences between the democracies and the
communist, nuclear weapons rised, disagreements over splited Germany, crisis over korea,
superpower foreign policy.
France, US, UK:- political (democracies): many conflict political parties by elections. The winner
party rule and becomes the government. Economically: (meritocracy: people get
success/power because of their abilities) people own their houses, businesses if they can afford
it. Social : people can critic their government and leaders, free expressions, freedom of press
and mostly owned by individuals.
Soviet union:- political (communism): no political competition by elections but not democratic,
because there is not another political parties. Economically (equality) citizens cant own a
businesses, everything belong to the state. Social : censorship, few social rights.
Nato military alliance lead by the US: mostly democracy countries.
Warsaw pact military alliance leaded by the Soviet Union: mostly communist countries.
Major events of cold war ( bolcakade of Germany), many civil wars in Europe. Greek civil war
and the Truman doctrine of 1947, communist try to interfer and give solustions and gain the
first communist country in Europe, but George kennan want to solve the problem, the presdint
Truman allaied with George with Doctrine to fight the communism danger and contain the
soviet expansion. Because if the Greek become communism, other countries will follow ( the
domino theory)
Berlin wall (1961-89): 2.6m15% east germans went to the west. The wall built in 1961 to
prevent more east germans from leaving. More than 150 east germans killed trying to climp the
wall for the other side, the wall fell in Nov.1989: symbolizyed of cold war end. In July 1990 east
& west Germany reunited again to be one country.
In Asia, US helped the non- communist parts, as same as soviet did with the communist parts.
How could friends become enemy’s (FR, US, UK)?
End of the cold war:Why the cold war ended? Defet of the soviet union in afghanstan, soviet union economic
weakness, role of gorbachev, breakining down of berlin war, role of Reagan, failure of
communisim in eastern Europe.
gorbachev : Last leader of the sovit union and communist party, cam in power 1989, risend in
25 dec, 1991 with that ended of the Soviet union. What did he do to end the war? He become
to power and aim as the leader to strength the soviet union because their was a compition with
the us (cold war), he wanted to reform their economy and military, because their was a lot of
resections on the people ( censorship: the government decide what the people do, read, eat,
travel) young people hate this + religion people. So, how to strengths the economy? He need
more money to do so, where he would have the money? From the military, spend less in
militaryfight less proxy, build less military equipment’s, and spend more in economy. Why he
was spending money to the military? Because of the cold war, (proxy: a war between strong
countries using the public local power/ parties.) but how to spend less if they already has a
cold war with the US? He aimed to end the war to focus in economy. what he change in the
economy with three key things; Perestroika: economic restrictions, people can earn their own
money and have their own houses and profits. Glasnost mean political freedom: why did he
want that? Reduce of things was band, like books, movies, allow people to criticism his policy,
and give them the right to vote for the representative to the soviet parlament, to make the
system better. There was no weatren food in stalin role, but gorbachev allow these products in
the markets. He failed
Reagan: president 1980, he was against the soviet union and call it ( evil empire), however
Reagan changed his thought about the soviet union, because the us was suffering economic
problems, because of the cold war and have a plan named ( star war) he wanted to build a
satalit which shoot any soviet army from the sky, it was not possible/ fantasy but he spend a lot
of money on it. He also know that they both that they want to stop the fight (germay+ US) and
stenght tier economy, so they came together and sign a treaty, and another treaty to reduce
military activity and weapons (tanks, guns).
Revolutions in eastern Europe, located beside the Soviet union in 1989, that ended communist
role and bring the democracy role, the sovit union come into prusher, the revolution started
poland, hungry and ended with Romania. The revolutions was leaded by common people. The
revolutions was arm free, which mean no one die and a peaceful end of communisim, but some
countries like romainia used violence and bloody. The Soviet union remaind the only
communist country left, the military blamed gorbachev for the revolution and losing their
impires and losing their allias, so they removed gorbachev from power in august 1991. About 1
weak gorbachev became presdent again, but because he don’t control the mi…
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