BIOL 1101 ISU Physical Impact in Performance of Sportsmen Article Discussion Hello! This is a Journal Article Assignment. Below I attached a PDF labeled, “JAA 2nd Article (Directions)” & “JAA 2nd Article (Article Only).” These PDFs contain all the information needed to know.
This is due: April 16th
I have done one JAA article already and I referenced it down as a PDF for you to look at for this assignment as well. I put the article down as a PDF along with the rubric. Below I attached a PDF labeled, “1st JAA Paper (for Reference)” & “1st JAA Rubric (for Reference)
If you have any questions please let me know.
Thank you! Biol 1101L
Journal Article Assignment #2
You will be required to read another journal article (assigned by your instructor) and answer questions about the
article. The article must describe an experimental study done by the authors, NOT a review / note / comment.
Format of assignment:
• First page (top, right corner) should include 1) your name, 2) course #, and 3) section #.
• Question & answer – question written out (with Q#) followed by the answer in full sentences and paragraph
• Times New Roman 12 pt. font
• 1 inch margins
• Reference List on last page
Format of the Reference List:
• All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented ½ inch from the left margin. This
is called hanging indentation.
• Authors’ names are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work
for up to and including seven authors. If the work has more than seven authors, list the first six authors and then
use ellipses after the sixth author’s name. After the ellipses, list the last author’s name of the work.
• Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.
• All citations in the list need to follow the specific format found in Section B: Referencing/Citing.
JAA-2 must be uploaded to Moodle by April 16th. DO NOT wait until the last hour to upload as it may take more
time than you think it will. To complete the JAA use the following:
This assignment sheet
Lab 1 task sheet
Information in the “How to Read a Scientific Paper” folder on Moodle
Rubric (page 4)
Read the paper. Please see the folder (How to Read a Scientific Paper) on Moodle.
Answer questions 1-6 concisely, thoughtfully, and in complete sentences and paragraph form. Remember
that your audience does not include experts. You will not understand many, if not most, of the terms and acronyms
in the articles; look them up, and then use the definition in your answer. When looking up the definitions make sure
you cite your resources. You must USE YOUR OWN WORDS, no quoting. Be sure to check your spelling and
grammar. Then make sure you have completed questions 7-8.
1. What is the species name of the model/study organism? If the study is looking at human disease
choose the disease causing organism. If the study is on some aspect of human physiology or
anatomy, the model organism is a human. You may need to find this information using another
resource. At least 1 sentence.
The species name is ALWAYS italicized.
The species name is ALWAYS binomial (consisting of two words):
• genus name (also known as generic name)
• specific name (also known as specific epithet or trivial name)
Always has the first word but not the second word capitalized.
Ex 1: The North American Elk species scientific name is Cervus canadensis.
You only have to write out the species scientific name in full when you first introduce it
after that you can abbreviate it.
Journal Article Assignment #2
Ex. 2: The North American Elk, Cervus canadensis, is one of the largest species in the Cervidae
family. Although C. canadensis is one of the largest mammals found in North American it has a relatively short life span of 13 years.
2. Intellectual merit and broader impact: A) Why did the authors feel this research was important
enough to spend time and money doing it? B) Is there an economical, environmental, medical,
health, or a combination of reasons that makes this research valuable? At least 8 sentences.
3. What is the major question and/or hypothesis studied in the journal article? At least 2 sentence.
A hypothesis is a tentative statement that proposes a possible explanation to the question and states
a generalized relationship between two variables. Scientists use their knowledge of past events to
develop a general principle or explanation to help predict future events. The general principle is called
a hypothesis. The type of reasoning involved is called inductive reasoning (deriving a generalization
from specific details). To be useful, a hypothesis must be…
• Concrete: Based on defined variables.
• Testable: Procedures must be available to test it.
• Falsifiable: Able to be refuted.
4. Sampling for the study: At least 9 sentences.
A. Where did they sample?
B. How did they sample?
C. Number of samples taken?
Scientific data consist of empirical observations (e.g., measurements) from variables. Data are observed and recorded for entities called experimental units (EUs) or sampling units. To acquire data
concerning plant height (a variable) we measure the heights of individual plants (EUs). Human EUs
are generally called subjects. An EU can be measured with respect to one or many variables, and can
be measured at one or at many points in time.
5. Choose one experiment from the study:
A. Describe the experiment. At least 9 sentences.
B. What are the predictor and response variables for this experiment? At least 1 sentence.
C. What evidence did the experiment produce? At least 9 sentences.
D. Describe how the evidence supported/answered the major hypothesis/question? At least 9
When hypotheses and predictions are created the variables under study need to be determined. A
simplified description of variables is as follows; predictor variable (causes or affects the response
variable) and response variable (influenced by the predictor variable). As the name suggests, a predictor variable is the variable that serves as the basis on which the predictions are made. Predictor
variables are also known as explanatory or independent variables; are denoted by an X and are shown
on the horizontal x-axis. The response variable is the variable whose value we want to predict and
whose variance we want to explain and account for. Response variables are also known as dependent variables; are denoted by a Y and are shown on the vertical y-axis. Both variables can be either
categorical (categories have no numeric meaning; for example you can group individuals as male or
female) or quantitative. Quantitative variables can be further divided into continuous (infinite number
of values between two points) or discrete (a finite number of values between two given points).
6. What was the major conclusion of the study? At least 6 sentences.
7. Cite your resources in the body of your answers excluding the article under study. You must cite
ALL your resources in the correct format.
8. The last page must be a Reference List that lists the article under study as well as ALL other
resources. If you do not list all your resources and you do not use the correct format you will lose
ALL points possible. See below!
Journal Article Assignment #2
Referencing or citing your sources is an important part of academic writing. It lets you acknowledge another author’s work and helps you avoid plagiarism. Citing information allows your readers to value your writing because
it shows that you have studied the relevant background literature which provides you with some level of authority.
In your Reference List include; 1) the journal article under study, 2) all the resources you used to understand the
article, and 3) where you found the scientific species name of the study organism from the article.
Article from a Scientific Journal:
Present the journal title in full and maintain the punctuation and capitalization that is used by the journal in its
Most of the journals you will be using are organized by volume AND issue; include BOTH in your citation.
Include the Digital Object Identifier (DOI). If the article does not have a DOI include the URL instead.
• Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume
number(issue number), pages. http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy
• The in-text citation format would be (Author, Author, & Author, Year). In subsequent citations, only use the first
author’s last name followed by “et al.” (Author et al., Year).
Books with and without editions:
• Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location:
• The in-text citation format would be (Author, Year).In subsequent citations, only use the first author’s last name
followed by “et al.” (Author et al., Year).
• Brooker, R., Widmaier, E.P., Graham, L. E., & Stiling, P.D. (2014). Biology (3rd ed.). New
York, NY: The McGraw Hill Companies.
• The in-text citation format would be (Brooker, Widmaier, Graham, & Stiling, 2014). In subsequent citations, only
use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” (Brooker et al., 2014).
• Fultz, J.E. (2014). Major Concepts in Biology I Laboratory Manual. Lab 2: Acids & Bases
(pages 2-1 to 2-8) (Unpublished). Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID. OR
• Fultz, J.E. (2014). Major Concepts in Biology I Laboratory Manual. (Unpublished). Idaho
State University, Pocatello, ID.
• The in-text citation format would be (Fultz, 2014).
Lecture or Lab Notes:
Course lecture notes taken by a student are considered ‘personal communication’ as they are unpublished
and ‘non-retrievable’. For this reason, they are only cited within the text and not included in the Reference List. For
example, lecture notes taken for a lecture given by Professor C. Black:
• It is reported that ….. (Professor C. Black, personal communication, May 5, 2015)
Power point notes are in a format that can be retrieved and need to be treated more formally.
• Black, C. (2015). Fermentation and respiration [PowerPoint slides].
Retrieved from http://elearn.isu.edu/moodle/
• The in-text citation format would be (Black, 2015)
Online Dictionary or Encyclopedia:
• Feminism. (n.d.). In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved from
• The in-text citation format would be (Encyclopædia Britannica online, n.d.).
You can use wikis only when looking up the scientific name of an organism or the definition of a term. All other
references should be from journal articles or .edu/.org sites
• Pocatello, Idaho. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved March 7, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pocatello
• The in-text citation format would be (“Pocatello,” 2014).
Journal Article Assignment #2
C: Instructor Assigned JAA-2
You will open the JAA-2 forum in which your instructor has assigned each student an article.
Download, save to your computer, AND/OR print the article.
Skim the article. Make sure it is an experimental/observational study with methods and results sections.
Article information: Year:________, Volume: ______Issue: ______ Pages:_______________
Article Title: ______________________________________________________________________
JAA-2 must be uploaded to Moodle by April 16th. DO NOT wait until the last hour to upload as it may take
more time than you think it will.
JAA #2 Rubric:
Uploaded to Moodle.
Correct Q & A formatting (Do not accept if incorrect)
Intellectual merit and broader impact
Major question / hypothesis studied in the article.
A. Where did they sample.
B. How did they sample.
C. Number of samples taken.
One major conclusion.
Sport Sci Health (2018) 14:77–82
Short duration static stretching preceded by cycling warm‑up
reduces vertical jump performance in healthy males
Clarissa M. Brusco1 · Marcelo G. Pompermayer1 · Bruna W. Esnaola1 ·
Claudia S. Lima1 · Ronei S. Pinto1
Received: 3 May 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published online: 29 October 2017
© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l. 2017
Purpose It has been proposed that warm-up activities
including static stretching may have detrimental effects on
power performance. While it is well established in the literature that more than 30 s of stretching before exercise induces
deficit in force and power production, there are still controversial findings regarding 30 s or less when additional interventions, such as general warm-up, are allied to the stretching. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the
acute effect of passive static stretching preceded by dynamic
warm-up on vertical jump performance.
Methods Twenty healthy men participated in this study,
and attended to one familiarization session and two testing sessions. In the warm-up (WP) condition, participants
performed a 5 min warm-up on a cycle ergometer followed
by the counter movement jump (CMJ) test. In the warm-up
plus static stretching (WP + SS) condition, besides the same
previously described warm-up, participants performed 30 s
static stretching bouts for calf, hamstrings, gluteus maximus
and quadriceps muscles in a randomized order, followed by
the CMJ test.
Results Data distribution was verified by the Shapiro–Wilk
test and Paired T-Student test was used to compare jump
height between the two conditions. A significant betweencondition effect was observed for CMJ height (p < 0.05), such that jump height was significantly lower in WP + SS condition. * Clarissa M. Brusco firstname.lastname@example.org 1 Exercise Research Laboratory (LAPEX), Physical Education School, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Rua Felizardo, 750, Bairro Jardim Botânico, Porto Alegre, RS CEP 90690‑200, Brazil Conclusion The results of the present study demonstrate that a 5 min dynamic warm-up combined to a 30 s of passive static stretch in four muscle groups induce a reduction in lower limb power measured by CMJ height. Keywords Countermovement jump · Muscle performance · Muscle power · Warm-up Introduction Muscle stretching is generally used as part of warm-up routines in sports practices aiming among other things, to increase range of motion and to decrease the resistance to stretch, allowing a freer movement pattern, which is important especially in sports requiring large range of motion . Nevertheless, it is known that an acute stretching bout leads to a series of central and peripheral alterations [2, 3], and these transitory changes compromise muscle function and performance. Therefore, greater attention has been given to the evaluation of muscle functional capacity following stretching exercises [4–7]. Activities involving muscle power (i.e. vertical jump) demand the development of maximal force in very short periods of time, requiring high contraction velocity; thus, this expression of muscle force is a crucial element to a successful performance in many athletic events [8, 9]. There is a practical significance to optimize or at least to maintain power production in sports activities, therefore pre-exercise strategies (i.e. muscle stretching) have been studied to elucidate the specific conditions where performance could be impaired or enhanced. Some studies have reported that static stretching, when performed before an exercise bout, is able to decrease the performance of maximal force, power, peak torque and 13 Vol.:(0123456789) 78 vertical jump height [4, 6, 10–13], while others have not reported any performance impairment following static stretching [14–16]. An important variable that seem to determine the interference of the static stretching on the subsequent exercise, is the volume of the stretching protocol. Kay and Blazevich  reported different responses depending on stretching duration, whereas 60 s or more of stretching, are more likely to impair performance, and short duration stretching (30–45 s or less) may have no detrimental effects . However, methodological differences on the interventions must be considered, such as the addition of a dynamic warm-up before the stretching protocol. In a study conducted in our laboratory, Pinto et al.  found significant decrement in vertical height after 60 s passive stretch. This study aimed to explore the isolated effects of stretching and thus participants did not perform any kind of dynamic warm-up prior to the static stretch procedure . However, it is not a practical condition, once specific activities such jogging, cycling or hopping are usually included in the warm-up. Cè et al. investigated the effect of static stretching preceded by dynamic warm-up, and no decrease in the performance of CMJ and SJ were reported. However, in their study only the hamstring and calf muscles were stretched, while other muscles involved in the vertical jump movement (i.e. gluteus maximus and quadriceps muscles) were not and this may have been determining in their results. Additionally, while it is well established in the literature that more than 30 s of stretching before exercise induces a deficit in force and power production , there are still controversial findings regarding 30 s or less when additional interventions (e.g. dynamic exercise) are combined to the stretch [4, 6]. The reason probably lies on the distinct stretching protocols and evaluations. Aiming to explore the effect of a more complete warm-up routine in the subsequent power production, a more practical condition was designed, the same task (i.e. counter movement jump—CMJ), sample characteristics (i.e. recreationally active individuals), and the same time of stretch (i.e. 30 s) of the previous study  were used, and a warm-up on a cycle ergometer was added before the stretching exercise. Therefore, given the importance to preserve power levels aiming athletic performance and considering that stretching prior the exercise routine is a common practice, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the acute effect of passive static stretching preceded by cycling warm-up on CMJ height. Fig. 1 The experimental design. WP warm-up condition, WP + SS warm-up plus static stretching condition 13 Sport Sci Health (2018) 14:77–82 Methods Experimental approach to the problem Participants attended to three separated sessions, one for familiarization and two for CMJ measurements. On the first testing day, CMJ was performed after 5 min warm-up on a cycle ergometer and on the second testing day CMJ was preceded by 5 min warm-up on a cycle ergometer combined with lower limb passive static stretching (Fig. 1). Participants Twenty healthy men aged 18–28 years participated in the present study. Participants were asked to complete a health (PAR-Q) and a physical activity (IPAQ, short version) questionnaire. All participants were free from functional limitations that could impair their performance and tests execution, were classified as active according to IPAQ questionnaire and were classified as eutrophic by BMI (20–24.9 kg/m2). The participants received written and oral information of the purpose, procedures and risks of study participation, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. All procedures were approved by the University Institutional Review Board, and conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Procedures One familiarization session with CMJ was performed before muscle power measurements. Participants were instructed about CMJ proper technique and three to five jumps were allowed, it was followed by two r... Purchase answer to see full attachment
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