Hazardous Materials and Industrial Safety in Disaster Management Paper 1. Review the attached PPT, research the two incidents mentioned below. Review and cite various journals outlining Anhydrous ammonia (NH3) uses in the industrial setting and the emergency response planning needed to prevent an event.
Incidents – March 2016 Boston warehouse, and August 2010 Millard Refrigerated Services in Alabama
2. Finally, immerse yourself into the actual incident and list the activities/tasks you need to accomplish to ensure no further damage to live, property, and the community.
Answer each question separately. Do not write a whole paragraph for all of them.
Reference to appropriate authoritative resources and official websites. Must be accessible online. Use New Times Roman 12 font with 1” margins and APA style.
– Stilp, R. and Bevelacqua, A.; Emergency Medical Response to Hazardous Material Incidents, ISBN-10: 0-8273-7829-7 DELMAR CENGAGE Learning.
– Cashman; Emergency Response Handbook for Chemical and Biological Agents and Weapons, second edition, ISBN 978-1-4200-5265-7 (CRC Press). Ammonia Refrigeration
Risks and Response
NO impact to the public
NO risk to emergency responders
Safety of the FD is absolutely #1
Accountability of facility personnel
and FD is vital to a successful
Inert Gases-nitrogen etc.
Other chemicals in facility
Properties, Uses, Hazards,
Normal Boiling Point –28 °F
Saturation pressure 181 psia at 90
Density 35-40 lb/ft3 (L), 0.02-0.9
Latent heat 450-600 BTU/lb
Freezing point –107.7 ºF
PEL (Permissible Exposure Limit)
• 50 ppm (Federal)
• 35 ppm (NIOSH)
IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Life and
• 300 ppm (Federal)
• 300 ppm (NIOSH)
Acute Toxicity of
Toxicology of Ammonia
Anhydrous Ammonia is “without water”,
kept as a liquid under pressure.
When released expands to a gas phase or
Is Highly Toxic due to its Corrosive effects,
similar to Lye (or Sodium Hydroxide)continues to penetrate tissues after
However, it is not a Systemic Poison, no
damage at the enzymatic level of cells
(unlike for example- Cyanide).
Upper Airway and Lung
Direct tissue damage results in:
Swelling, spasm of the upper airway with
Sloughing of the tracheal lining with
inability to breathe.
Bleeding of tissue.
Direct Lung damage- airway spasm
(asthma), wet/leaky lungs (pulmonary
Poor Oxygenation, Lung Failure, Death.
Second Degree Burns (skin red and
blistering) and Third Degree (full thickness
burns- leathery skin without feeling) are
not uncommon outcomes (see attached
Results in marked fluid loss, severe pain,
mechanical constriction (chest), shock and
infections (confirmed in animal studies).
3 Mechanisms: Cryogenic (-28°F),
Thermal, and Chemical. Simple flushing
with water cannot fully reverse these
effects and skin damage continues.
Burns to the Eyes and severe
corrosive damage can occur along
Loss of vision and Eye globe loss can
Penetration of the eye by ammonia
can occur within 5 seconds- water
dilution is often ineffective.
Anhydrous Ammonia has the potential to
produce Death or Serious Toxicity with
Long Term adverse effects.
Actual Exposures Clearly Shows the Acute
and Chronic Medical Effects Expected from
Significant Anhydrous Ammonia Exposure.
Ammonia Systems Designed to Prevent
Inadvertent Ammonia Release Saves Lives
and Reduces Serious Injuries.
5-50 ppm odor detected
50 ppm OK 8 hr (OSHA PEL limit)
1000 ppm SCBA with Level A suit
5000 ppm FATAL!!!
Unknown PPM- Always wear SCBA!!!!!
Highest respiratory protection
Small (nonflammable for transport)
Confined spaces = possible
Levels very high (160,000-280,000ppm)
Ventilation = safety!!
High ignition energy!!!
Oil or other entrained combustibles widen
flammable region (40,000-70,000)
Extended heat above 840 ºF = H2/N2
The best thing about ammonia is
that it stinks! – Milton Garland
Human-detectable at 5-50 ppm
• Normal human reaction at 50 ppm is to
• Irritating-eyes tear/nose runs
• Possible panic hazard
Excellent warning properties
Hazards of Compressed Gases
Toxicity-acute and chronic
Ammonia First Aid
Skin contactFlush with large quantities of
water for at least 15 minutes while
InhalationRemove from exposure.
If breathing has stopped or difficult,
administer artificial respiration or
oxygen as needed.
Ammonia First Aid
Eye contactFlush with large amount of water
for at least 15 minutes.
Always seek medical attention!!!
Hazardous Material Incident
General Safety Considerations
Safety Do’s and Don’t’s
Establish Hazard Zones
(q)(2) Elements of an emergency response plan.
Protect Yourself- Use Safe Approach
Secure the Scene
Obtain Further Aid and Assistance
Safe Site Entry
Types of Refrigeration Releases
• Liquid lockup
• Seal/packing leak
• Relief valve release
• Poor pumpout
• Heating isolated
• Oil-draining errors
• Pressure vessel rupture
Refrigeration oil (high
flash point, though)
Flammable liquids and
• Coil rupture-condensers
• Ammonia delivery
Ammonia down drain
• Retention Pond
• Corrosion under insulation
• Forklift impact
Personal Protective Equipment
Water spray/fog (NEVER on liquid!)
Contain runoff-watch drains
• Clean,dilute = agricultural fertilizer
• Keep away from water systems-rivers,
◼ Location where all incident
operations are directed and
planning functions are performed
◼ ERT Room is Command Post (CP)
for internal incidents
◼ CP will be established at time of an
external incidents – Uphill, upwind
◼ All ERT members will initially meet
in Command Post for briefing and
◼ One support person will remain at
the CP for documenting times &
Emergency Response Team consists of:
◼ Incident Commander
◼ Safety Officer
◼ 2 Entry Responders
◼ 2 Rescue/Backup Responders
◼ 1 Decon Officer
◼ Support Personnel
1. Set up security and physical barriers
2. Minimize persons and equipment responding
3. Establish work zones
4. Establish control points
5. Conduct safe operations
6. Implement appropriate decontamination procedures.
Hot Zone (Exclusion Zone)
Warm Zone (Contamination Reduction Zone)
Cold Zone (Support Zone)
Fog vapor releases only
NO CO2 / Vinegar
Be careful of explosion hazard
• Cloud dispersion
Evacuations typical for 1500 ft or so
• Mainly odor issue (panic)
• Also precautionary when amount not
Water knockdown useful, if streams,
Boilers in Engine room
Flammable liquids (gasoline, acetone
Flammable gases (ie propane,
Lift trucks and scissor lifts
Burns-thermal, chemical, cold
Striking objects-pressure, vehicle
Falls-heights, foot level,roof,ladder
Energy-electrocution, air, hydraulic,
mechanical, steam, AMMONIA
Upwind and Uphill
Definition: the direction from which
the wind is coming.
ALWAYS WANT TO BE UPWIND AND
Detect hazardous materials presence
Estimate likely harm without
Choose response objectives
Identify action options
Do the best option
Scene Control Guidelines
Set up perimeters quickly on arrival
Move people out of and away from
Gain control of access routes
Be prepared for shifts in wind
Use appropriate resources for
Emergency Response Plan
Duties and Responsibilities of ER
Mitigation and Control Techniques
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