Lynn University Human Freedom of Ethical Relativism Discussion Please answer the following discussions and add sub heading to separate each discussion post

Lynn University Human Freedom of Ethical Relativism Discussion Please answer the following discussions and add sub heading to separate each discussion post

1.

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Benedict Discussion

Ruth Benedict develops a school of thought called, “Ethical Relativism.” What is it? What is the main argument? How does she use the terms “normal and abnormal” to prove her point? Lastly, can you give me an example in the current modern world where her point on “relativism” is clearly evident.

2.

Sartre Discussion

This week’s reading, “Existentialism and Human Emotion,” examined Jean-Paul Sartre’s existentialist outlook on ethics. Sartre (1905-1980) was a French philosopher who stressed the significance of human freedom and questioned the role of external theories and causes in determining ethical decisions. In your Discussion Post for this week, make sure you do the following 3 things:

Describe Sartre’s conception of existentialist freedom
Explain how the story of the undecided young man illustrates Sartre’s views
Critically assess Sartre’s account of human freedom by giving a contemporary example that either confirms or challenges his views.

3.

Noddings Discussion

No unread replies.No replies.

This week we are examining, “CARING: A FEMININE APPROACH TO ETHICS” as articulated by Nel Noddings in chapter 21 of our textbook. After reading the text:

1. Find a current ethical issue (either in your own life or on the world stage that is going on right now) and

2. Evaluate Nel Nodding’s “Ethic of Care” as applied to this ethical issue. How would she respond? What is the difference between how men are apt to respond and how she says women are wired to respond and approach the issue? What are the pros and cons of this difference? Is it fair to make this distinction? Is it helpful? Make sure you quote from our reading in giving your evaluation.

3. Finally, does she bring anything new or helpful to your own research for your final paper? Explain!

For those of you who missed the video or wish to see it again, here’s Emma Watson’s address to the United Nations on Feminism: https://youtu.be/c9SUAcNlVQ4

4.

Kane Discussion

Robert Kane Essay “Through The Moral Maze” and Luttio “The Future of Religion”

Robert Kane (make sure you cite the text when answering the following questions):

What does Kane describe as the two “consequences” of the Tower of Babel regarding conflicting views on morality? Can you relate to these ideas in your own life? How?
How does Kane use the story of C.S. Lewis’ “Perelandra” to depict the dilemma of “Loss of Moral Innocence?” Have you ever experienced this problem/dilemma in your own life? Can you give some examples?
What does Kane propose, in the end, as a way forward through the “moral maze” of our modern context? Explain his concept of “openness” and relate it to the last chapter of our textbook “Religion and Morality.” What common theme/thread do you see?
Read and/or Listen to one of the “linked” podcasts/transcripts in the page “Examples of Life-Changing Constructive Dialog” in our module this week, and reflect on how this applies to our reading this week by Robert Kane applies. Paracelsus (Theophrastus Bombastus von
Hohenheim, 1493–1541)
Aries Book Series
Texts and Studies in Western Esotericism
Editor
Wouter J. Hanegraaff
Editorial Board
Jean-Pierre Brach
Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke
Advisory Board
Roland Edighoffer – Antoine Faivre
Olav Hammer – Andreas Kilcher
Arthur McCalla – Monika Neugebauer-Wölk
Marco Pasi – Mark Sedgwick – Jan Snoek
Michael Stausberg – Kocku von Stuckrad
György Sz,/onyi – Garry Trompf
VOLUME 5
Paracelsus (Theophrastus
Bombastus von Hohenheim,
1493–1541)
Essential Theoretical Writings
Edited and translated with a Commentary and Introduction by
Andrew Weeks
LEIDEN • BOSTON
2008
The cover design is a detail from the oldest image of the city of St. Gall, a woodcut by
Heinrich Vogtherr (ca. 1545) printed in the Grosse Schweizerchronik of Johann Stumpf,
Zurich 1547–48, reproduced with the permission of the Vadianische Sammlung, St.
Gall.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
A C.I.P. record for this book is available from the Library of Congress
ISSN 1871-1405
ISBN 978 90 04 15756 9
Copyright 2008 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Koninklijke Brill NV incorporates the imprints Brill, Hotei Publishing,
IDC Publishers, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers and VSP.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated,
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission
from the publisher.
Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by
Koninklijke Brill NV provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to
The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910,
Danvers, MA 01923, USA.
Fees are subject to change.
printed in the netherlands
To Dr. Horst Pfefferl (Director, Weigel Edition) and Dr. Hartmut
Rudolph (Director, Leibniz Edition, Potsdam), friends and mentors in
a time-honored tradition of textual scholarship
PARACELSUS
ESSENTIAL THEORETICAL WRITINGS
Introduction: …………………………………………………………………………….. 1
Background and Summary of the Translated Writings……………….. 6
Das Buch Paragranum ………………………………………………………….. 8
The First Pillar, Philosophy ……………………………………………….. 10
The Second Pillar, Astronomy……………………………………………. 11
The Third Pillar, Alchemy …………………………………………………. 13
The Fourth Pillar, Proprietas or Virtue ……………………………….. 13
Opus Paramirum ………………………………………………………………… 14
On the Origin and Cause of Diseases…………………………………….. 19
On the Matrix……………………………………………………………………… 20
On the Invisible Diseases……………………………………………………… 21
The Significance of Ambiguity …………………………………………….. 24
Unique and Commonplace Elements……………………………………… 29
The Objectives of Translation and Commentary ……………………… 34
The Procedures for Editing and Translating ……………………………. 39
Bibliography of Works Consulted in Translating…………………….. 47
I. Paragranum: German/ English ………………………………………………. 61
Preface ………………………………………………………………………….. 62/63
The First Foundation of Medicine: Philosophia………………. 106/107
The Second Foundation of Medicine: Astronomia …………… 162/163
The Third Foundation of Medicine: Alchimia …………………. 210/211
The Fourth Foundation of Medicine: Proprietas……………… 258/259
II. Opus Paramirum: German/ English …………………………………….. 297
Book One………………………………………………………………… 298/299
[Caput Primum] …………………………………………………….. 300/301
Caput Secundum ……………………………………………………. 316/317
Caput Tertium……………………………………………………….. 330/331
Caput Quartum ……………………………………………………… 342/343
Caput Quintum………………………………………………………. 356/357
Caput Sextum ………………………………………………………… 370/371
Caput Septimum…………………………………………………….. 382/383
Caput Octavum ……………………………………………………… 396/397
viii
ANDREW WEEKS
Liber Secundus
Caput Primum……………………………………………………….. 410/411
Caput Secundum ……………………………………………………. 424/425
Caput Tertium……………………………………………………….. 446/447
Caput Quartum ……………………………………………………… 456/457
Caput Quintum………………………………………………………. 466/467
Caput Sextum ………………………………………………………… 474/475
Caput Septimum…………………………………………………….. 484/485
Caput Octavum ……………………………………………………… 494/495
Conclusion to Dr. Joachim Watt…………………………………. 500/501
III. On the Origin and Cause of Diseases of Both Kinds
(De Morborum Utriusque Professionis Origine et Causa.
Liber Tertius Paramiri): German/ English
Preface ………………………………………………………………………. 502/503
Tractatus Primus ………………………………………………………… 506/507
Tractatus Secundus……………………………………………………… 528/529
Tractatus Tertius…………………………………………………………. 544/545
Tractatus Quartus……………………………………………………….. 558/559
Tractatus Quintus ……………………………………………………….. 584/585
Tractatus Sextus………………………………………………………….. 604/605
IV. On the Matrix (Paramiri Liber Quartus de Matrice):
German/ English…………………………………………………………… 616/617
V. On the Invisible Diseases (De Causis Morborum Invisibilium):
German/ English
Preface ………………………………………………………………………. 720/721
Argumentum……………………………………………………………….. 736/737
Beginning of the First Book on those Things That Befall the
Human Being Because of Faith ………………………………….. 738/739
How Faith Makes the Body Ill……………………………………. 748/749
Discernment of faith …………………………………………………. 754/755
On Saint Valentine’s Day Disease………………………………. 772/773
On the Diseases that Result in Open Wounds, St. Cyril’s
Penance, St. John’s Revenge ………………………………… 774/775
On the Natural Burning, Saint Anthony’s Fire ……………… 776/777
On Saint Vitus’ Dance ………………………………………………. 778/780
The Second Book. De Impressionibus Coeli Occulti [missing]
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ix
The Third Book on the Invisible Works …………………………. 794/795
Beginning of the Third Book ……………………………………… 796/797
The Fourth Book on the Invisible Works
Preface ……………………………………………………………………. 840/841
Beginning of the Fourth Book ……………………………………. 844/845
The Fifth Book on the Invisible Works
Preface ……………………………………………………………………. 884/885
Beginning of the [Fifth] Book ……………………………………. 886/887
General Index ……………………………………………………………………….. 939
Index of Names …………………………………………………………………….. 964
Index of Paracelsus’ Life and Work…………………………………………. 969
Index of Citations from the Bible…………………………………………….. 973
Introduction
Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, known as Paracelsus
(1493-1541), was one of the most original and prolific authors of sixteenth-century Europe. Commonly remembered as an itinerate physician-surgeon, medical innovator, philosopher of nature, and alchemist,
he was also a lay theologian, theorist of the supernatural, and rebel
against institutions and traditions. In the course of the 1520s, he challenged academic and urban authorities in Switzerland and South Germany by demanding medical reforms. Rebuffed by his opponents, he
continued wandering for the remainder of his life, disseminating as an
author, polemicist, and physician his understanding of medicine and
nature. He died an obscure death in Salzburg, but before the end of the
century his influence had spread, resulting in posthumous partisan
controversies between advocates and detractors.
Paracelsus wrote prolifically on medicine, philosophy, theology,
and a variety of related topics. The modern fourteen-volume Sudhoff
edition, based on the Huser edition of 1589, comprises those writings
which were not understood as mainly theological: the medical, philosophical, or alchemical writings. The Goldammer edition of theological and social-ethical writings, which is only about half complete,
can be expected to surpass the Sudhoff edition in size. The scholarly
reception of these works has always faced serious obstacles due to
intrinsic ambiguities and unresolved editorial issues, with the result
that among the influential authors of his century Paracelsus is perhaps
the most difficult to interpret and integrate into an overall understanding of his time. Of all the editions, only Goldammer’s provides firstrate scholarly commentary and notes. The Sudhoff edition is bewildering in its riches, confronting readers with numerous textual variants
and fragments without clarifying their relation to the more finished
2
ANDREW WEEKS
versions.1 Despite Sudhoff’s splendid achievements, errors such as his
misidentification of writings as seminal as of “around 1520,” though
later rescinded, cast a long shadow in Paracelsus studies.
The few English translations from his work are inadequate and
outmoded. Arthur Edward Waite worked from early Latin translations
of the original German to produce a potpourri of inauthentic and authentic works.2 Henry Sigerist, a medical historian and student of
Sudhoff, oversaw and assisted in translating Four Treatises from the
German (Seven Defensiones, On the Miner’s Sickness, The Diseases
that Deprive Man of His Reason, and The Book of Nymphs, Sylphs,
Pygmies, and Salamanders).3 Though each item is skillfully rendered,
the four are no more than a colorful fistful from the puzzle of the entire corpus. The most readily available translations are florilegia or
assortments of excerpts. An influential collection appeared in the
Princeton Bollingen Series in 1951. A translation of the Jungian Jolande Jacobi’s Paracelsus. Lebendiges Erbe,4 it consists of memorable
1
The difficulties have been summarized by Joachim Telle. There are persistent
problems of authenticity; Sudhoff’s edition does not approach the standards of a modern historical-critical edition; some theological writings still await their first edition;
and research into the sources of Paracelsus’s inspiration is inadequate. See Telle,
“Aufgaben der Paracelsusforschung,” in Medizinische Ausbildung und Versorgung
zur Zeit des Paracelsus (Salzburg, Internationale Paracelsusgesellschaft, 2006), 9-28.
2
Paracelsus, The Hermetic and Alchemical Writings of Paracelsus, ed. Arthur Edward Waite (Berkeley: Shambhala, 1976). Based on a reprint of an earlier edition
(London: J. Elliot, 1894), the translation from German via Latin lends the writings a
facile surface clarity. The selection is dubious. Other translations have promoted the
association of Paracelsus with the occult and the mystical: The Archidoxes of Magic;
of the Supreme Mysteries of Nature; of the Spirits of the Planets; of the Secrets of
Alchemy; of the Occult Philosophy; the Mysteries of the Twelve Signs of the Zodiac;
the Magical Cure of Diseases; of Celestial Medicines, trans. from the Latin by Robert
Turner (New York: Samuel Weiser, 1975; a reprint of a 1656 translation of De Spiritus Metallorum and De occulta Philosophia and Archidoxis Magica); and The
Prophecies of Paracelsus, ed. Franz Hartmann (New York: Rudolf Steiner Publications, 1973).
3
Four Treatises of Theophrastus von Hohenheim, called Paracelsus, translated
from the original German by C. Lilian Temkin (Seven Defensiones), George Rosen
(On the Miners’ Sickness), Gregory Zilboorg (The Diseases that Deprive Man of His
Reason), Henry E. Sigerist (A Book on Nymphs, Sylphs, Pygmies, and Salamanders),
ed. with a preface by Henry E. Sigerist (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1941). The
notes are minimal but helpful.
4
Jolande Jacobi, Paracelsus: Lebendiges Erbe (Bollingen Series, 28), trans. Norbert Guterman (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1951).
INTRODUCTION
3
passages arranged with almost no attention to their sources. A more
attentive and substantial anthology of selections was recently translated by Goodrick-Clarke.5
It is not surprising that Paracelsus has been studied in excerpts in
English. More remarkable is the fact that his German-language reception rests to a considerable extent on de-contextualized passages.
Rarely are his writings studied as organic literary wholes in relation to
their specific historical or literary contexts. Since even the most intelligent and influential studies of Paracelsus in English have been reticent in citing directly from his writings, the primary and secondary
literature are disparate reservoirs of information with too few connecting channels. Scholarship takes the form of isolated monologues.
Notwithstanding the obstacles, Paracelsus has proven to be of enduring interest to scholars of the Renaissance and Reformation and to
historians of science, medicine, and literature. Scholarly access to the
thinker is the primary purpose of this volume. There is no better introduction than the writings composed between 1529 and 1532. Many if
not all the themes of his earlier and later production are recapitulated
or anticipated in these works of mid career. With their exalted tone,
trademark Para-titles, and relentless laying of foundations and projecting of exhaustive surveys, these treatises represent themselves as
the zenith of his authorial production. They have come down to us in
versions that are largely completed, though often unrefined. This
places them in a special category for an author who wrote under unpropitious circumstances and left behind many fragments and incomplete drafts. Das Buch Paragranum and the writings of 1531 which
are associated with the Paramirum title, including his treatise on the
“Invisible Diseases,” are relatively comprehensible when read on their
own. We can therefore adapt his term in regarding these writings as a
microcosm of the Paracelsian universe. As such, they can tell us a
great deal about the material and intellectual culture of his era.
To translate and provide commentary for the large corpus of
Paracelsus might require more than the career of an individual scholar.
5
Paracelsus, Essential Readings, selected and translated by Nicholas GoodrickClark (Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1999). Goodrick-Clark attempts to provide a
balanced selection of passages ranging from a few sentences to several pages in length
arranged by date following Sudhoff and by theme with few notes but an introduction
to the life and writings.
4
ANDREW WEEKS
But if contextualized in their time, tradition, and corpus, the writings
of the years 1530-31 can offer an essential access both to his work as a
whole, and through it, to the source of a major current of early modern
thought which is too often subordinated to abstractions or reduced to a
few overworked quotations and concepts. The edited and unedited
writings are fraught with uncertainties of dating and authenticity and
burdened with preconceptions. By translating the writings of this key
period, it should be possible to provide future scholarship with coordinates for orientation: laterally with regard to the concurrent developments of Paracelsus’ life and times, retrospectively with regard to
his previous writings, prospectively with regard to those that follow,
and thematically with regard to the entirety of his writings, including
the many that cannot be dated with certainty.
Context can clarify obscure terms and account for the urgency and
expectation in Paracelsus’ writings. The year 1530 saw the publication of Girolamo Fracastoro’s Syphilis, Georg Agricola’s medicalmetallurgical Bermannus, sive de Re Metallica Dialogus, and Otto
Brunfels’ Herbarum Vivae Eicones with its prefatory “Encomium
Medicinae.” The pursuits of these contemporaries offer a measure of
the erudition and curiosity of his age and a clue to the tensions he
sensed and rendered extreme. In the study of nature, Paracelsus’ polemically proclaimed turn from classical learning to fresh experience
is anticipated in the subtle tensions between ancient sources with their
Mediterranean flora and fresh observations of native regions in the
work of the Humanists. For example, Brunfels’ Latin compendium of
1530 extols Aristotle, Pliny, Dioscorides, Theophrastus, Galen, Celsus, and the mythical “Chiron Centaureus” as a name linked to the
“herba centaurea” (Brun.-Lat. 6). However, without abandoning ancient authority in writing of native plants, Brunfels’ German Kreüterbuch of 1532 accords thoughtful consideration to the practitioner of
surgery and distillation who died in 1512, Hieronymus Brunschwig,
and exalts the virtues of the lowly nettle, favored allegorically by God,
above the hyacinth of classical legend (Brunfels 1532 cxxiii). If not
the sources, the themes of Paracelsus can be traced.
In context, Paracelsus’ work reveals unnoticed patterns of allusion
and affinity. He was responding to current issues in his discussions of
mining, metallurgy, medical herbs, syphilis, medical education, and
the reform of apothecaries, as well as in his Bible commentaries and
doctrinal writings on the Eucharist and the Trinity. He reacted, albeit
INTRODUCTION
5
idiosyncratically, to the prestige of astronomy and anatomy. The dual
impact of theological and humanistic controversies is ingrained in the
complexities of his writings in the form of extended complex allusions.
The translation and commentary should bring the interrelations of
these contexts to light. Paracelsus’ absorption of influences was neither systematic nor accidental. The writings translated here must be
approached as products of a many-facetted dispute. The years and locations of his most intense authorial activity coincided with challenges
in medicine and the study of nature, even as it fell within an epoch
bounded by the Peasant Wars of the mid 1520s and the death of
Zwingli in October 1531. During this period, Paracelsus witnessed a
violent religious-social revolt in Salzburg, the consolidation of doctrinal-political independence in the Southwest in a rift catalyzed by the
Eucharistic controversy, the bitter disputes between the Humanism of
Erasmus and the theology of Luther’s Wittenberg and between the
magiste…
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