Substance Abuse and Addiction Among Teenagers Discussion In this paper, you will
conduct a literature review in an area of interest of your choice, critically
analyze the literature, and synthesize your findings in a literature review.
Your chosen area of interest MUST BE RELEVANT TO SOCIAL WORK! Your paper must include 3 sections: (1) A cover page, (2) typed text (must be between 3 pages [minimum] and 6 pages [maximum] in length), and (3) a References page. Your paper must be typed in APA format on a Microsoft Word document (Note: Do NOT use programs that format your citations!!!These programs do NOT format correctly!).This means that your paper must: (1) have cover page with running head, title for paper, your first/last name(s), course title, centered on cover page (2) page numbers in upper-right hand corner [each page should have page number in upper-right hand corner],(Note: Do NOT include an abstract page), (3) double-spaced, (4) typed in 12-point font, (5) paragraph construction [Note: Paragraphs must be at least 3 sentences in length to stand alone as paragraph], (6) complete sentences, (7) good grammar. Watch YOUTUBE video “APA Format Citations-Sixth (6th) Edition” to watch how to format your paper in APA correctly @ http://youtu.be/9pbUoNa5tyY Requirement #3: Literature Review
Due date: March 27
Strengthen your critical thinking skills as informed consumers of research! This assignment will
help you develop your research question, and set the foundation for your CPHS research
proposal! In this paper, you will conduct a literature review in an area of interest of your choice,
critically analyze the literature, and synthesize your findings in a literature review. Your chosen
area of interest MUST BE RELEVANT TO SOCIAL WORK!
Format of paper/
Your paper must include 3 sections: (1) A cover page, (2) typed text (must be
between 3 pages [minimum] and 6 pages [maximum] in length), and (3) a
Your paper must be typed in APA format on a Microsoft Word document
(Note: Do NOT use programs that format your citations!!! These programs do
NOT format correctly!). This means that your paper must: (1) have cover page
with running head, title for paper, your first/last name(s), course title, centered
on cover page (2) page numbers in upper-right hand corner [each page should
have page number in upper-right hand corner], (Note: Do NOT include an
abstract page), (3) double-spaced, (4) typed in 12-point font, (5) paragraph
construction [Note: Paragraphs must be at least 3 sentences in length to stand
alone as paragraph], (6) complete sentences, (7) good grammar.
Watch YOUTUBE video “APA Format Citations-Sixth (6th) Edition” to watch
how to format your paper in APA correctly @ http://youtu.be/9pbUoNa5tyY
You must cite your sources of information in correct APA format (Note: You
MUST utilize your 6th edition APA manual! On Blackboard, click on the “APA
format” tab to get important information about avoiding plagiarism,
paraphrasing, basic citations in paragraphs and in References section, as well
as important pages to refer to in your 6th edition APA manual).
Note: You can use no more than TWO direct quotes in your paper!!! This
means you must the majority of information from other sources in YOUR OWN
WORDS (paraphrase). Cite your source of information correctly!
You must select a minimum of 6 peer-reviewed journal articles that are
exploratory, quasi-experimental and/or experimental research studies (only one
of your six articles can be qualitative research articles). ALL OF YOUR
ARTICLES MUST HAVE A “METHODS” SECTION. You will find these
on the TSU Library electronic databases. (Note: If you are not familiar with
what peer-reviewed journals are, watch this tutorial @
You may also want to include citations from credible websites (.gov, .edu, .org),
which often provide current statistics and information about your chosen area of
interest. That information can best contribute to your discussion in the first two
sections of your paper, the “Introduction” and “Scope of Problem”.
Note: Information from credible websites are in addition to the 6 required
original research studies published in peer-review journals. These credible
websites do NOT take the place of the 6 required original research studies!
You must also cite all of your sources in a References section at the end of your
paper (Note: A References section is on a separate page at the end of your paper
(see your 6th edition APA manual, pp. 180-183 “Reference list”, and pp. 193224 “Reference Examples” to format this page and types of sources correctly).
Content of paper
Citing your sources and constructing your References section in correct 6th
edition APA format will be a significant part of your grade for this paper! YOU
MUST USE YOUR 6th EDITION APA MANUAL TO DO THIS!
A literature review requires a synthesis of the research articles you have
reviewed- you should not discuss each article separately! In the literature
review, you should critically analyze and synthesize the literature of a topical
area of interest. Use the following outline to format your paper. Use the below
headings in your paper, and address each item within each heading, in the order
*Introduction of the topic/problem
*Provide a brief explanation about why this issue is important
*Provide a brief description of what your paper is going to address
SCOPE OF PROBLEM
*Describe the breadth (who/what is affected) and depth (impact magnitude)
of the problem
*Discuss the population(s) affected most by this problem
*Describe how the population(s) are affected
*Define your variables of interest
*Explain why this problem is important to explore and address
*Describe previous studies about your chosen problem (refer to studies
– research designs
– sampling methods
– participants utilized in studies
– operationalization of independent and dependent variables
– theories used
– hypotheses tested
– major findings
CRITIQUE OF LITERATURE
*Describe the strengths and weaknesses of previous studies methodology (i.e,
generalizability, measurement, cultural sensitivity, research design, threats to
*In general, describe what previous research has contributed to this topic of
*Based on limitations of previous studies, describe how future studies can
address the weaknesses you identified
*Describe possible suggestions for future research by identifying potential
research questions, or relationships between variables that need further
*Close the literature review with a discussion of implications: Why is your
suggestion for future research important?
You must submit your paper by 5:00 pm on March 27th! To
submit your paper, you must click on the “Literature Review Paper” tab, and
upload your paper as an attachment [in Microsoft word format] on the
assignment link (and remember, there is an 11% penalty to your grade each day it is
late, so make sure you submit your paper on-time!). Any papers not uploaded
as an attachment in “.doc” or “.docx” format will NOT be graded.
After I have graded your paper, I will post your grade, and will also insert
the grading rubric with feedback and comments, which can be accessed in your
MyGrades tab next to the score. The rubric used to grade this assignment can be
found under the “Rubrics” tab on Blackboard. Please review the grading rubric
for this assignment prior to beginning and uploading your worksheet.
How to Read (and Understand) a Social Science Journal Article
What is an academic journal article?
Academic journals are periodicals in which researchers publish their work. They are typically peer-‐reviewed
journals, meaning that the work is reviewed and evaluated by other scholars prior to publication in an effort to
ensure that only the best, most rigorously researched articles are published.
Journal articles offer a window into the inner workings of a discipline. They demonstrate how social scientists
formulate hypotheses, design empirical studies, analyze the observations they collect, and interpret their results.
Journal articles can appear daunting and often make for dense, dry reading, but they generally follow a
standardized format. Once you understand the structure of each article, knowing where to look for important
information and understanding the content becomes much easier.
Anatomy of a journal article
A journal article is composed of inter-‐related parts. Together, they tell a story about a piece of research.
What it is
What it tells you
The title presents a concise statement of What is this article about?
the theoretical issues investigated.
One paragraph that appears before the
What is this article about?
article. It provides a summary of the
What topic is the author studying?
What was her primary finding?
This section introduces the topic of the
What is this article about?
article and discusses what the article
What does the author plan to do in the paper?
contributes to existing knowledge on the Why should we care about this
What is the author trying to test or show?
How does she intend to contribute to the
The purpose of a literature review is to
What do we already know about this topic and
(this can either be
discuss previous work on the topic, point what is left to discover?
included in the
out what questions remain, and relate
What are some of the most important past
introduction or come
the research presented in the rest of the findings on this topic?
after the introduction
article to the existing literature. There
How have these past studies led the author to
under its own subtitle)
should also be a clear discussion of the
do this particular study?
author’s research hypotheses.
What are the research hypotheses?
Methods and data
The methods section provides
What data did the author use and how did she
information about the individuals that
the author studied and the way that she Who were the participants in this sample?
conducted her analysis. It includes
What makes them unique?
information about the participants, the
Is the sample a good representation of the
procedures, the instruments and the
entire population? If not, how are they
variables that were measured.
Is the study qualitative (based on interviews,
ethnography, participant observation, or
content analysis), quantitative (based on
statistical analysis), or multi-‐method (includes
both qualitative and quantitative analysis)?
The results section explains what the
What did the author find?
Frederique Laubepin, PhD
Inter-‐university Consortium for Political and Social Research, 2013
What it is
author found when she analyzed her
data. It can be quite technical, reporting
the results in detailed statistical
language. Tables and figures are
Articles typically end by discussing in
“plain English” what the results mean
and how the study contributes to existing
knowledge. Here the research questions
are answered and it should be clear at
this point whether the hypotheses were
supported. The conclusion is the final
section. It relates the research back to
the larger context, and suggests avenues
for future research.
This section lists all of the articles and
other sources cited within the article.
What it tells you
What does it all mean and why is it important?
What were the authors’ overall findings?
Why are these findings important?
What limitations of the study do the authors
identify (if any)?
What suggestions for future research do the
authors make (if any)?
on this topic
What is known
When it comes to reading journal articles, reading linearly (like you would a novel, starting at the beginning and
reading word for word until you reach the end) is often not the most efficient approach. Depending on your goal,
you may need to cut through peripheral details, ignore sophisticated statistics with which you may not be familiar,
and focus on the central ideas.
How, then, should you read an article?
1. Determine your purpose
Before you even start reading, take a moment to think about what you need to get out of the article. Is this an
assignment for class discussion, an article you want to use in a term paper (if so, how much of it will you need
to use), or one about which you need to write a critique/review? Are you interested in the author’s
theoretical perspective? Her findings? Her methods? Her data? Are you interested in getting a sense of the
research that has been done on a specific topic/issue? Knowing the answer to these questions will determine
your reading strategy.
2. Devise a reading strategy
I’m looking for…
Frederique Laubepin, PhD
Inter-‐university Consortium for Political and Social Research, 2013
Understand the difference between structural reading and close reading
Structural reading is “a form of close reading applied to the overall structure of an extended text (usually a
book). We focus on what we can learn about the book from its title, introduction, table of contents” (Paul and
Elder 2008). The overview that this approach provides gives perspective. It helps the reader to determine
whether she wants to spend time reading the text and how closely she wants to read it. It also guides her
reading, like a mental scaffolding.
When reading structurally, ask these questions:
What does the title tell me about this article?
What is the main idea in the article? (skim the abstract and introduction)
What are the parts of the whole? What are the sections of the article?
In light of my structural reading, what questions would I pursue during close reading?
Close reading is exactly as the name suggests. It requires that the reader get up-‐close and personal with the
text. When reading closely, you may want to stop after every paragraph to summarize what is being said,
reflect on the arguments being made, and evaluate the quality of the evidence being presented. This requires
active engagement (or dialogue) with the text. Take ownership of what you read: mark the text up, jot down
questions, comments or observations in the margins, highlight important passages/quotes, and take notes as
you go. Interacting with the text in these ways makes it more likely that you will remember the information as
Don’t waste time!
Very few articles in a field are so important that every word needs to be read carefully. It’s okay to skim and
Paul, R. and Elder, L. 2008. How to Read a Paragraph: The Art of Close Reading. Dillon Beach, CA: The Foundation
for Critical Thinking Press.
Weir, R. 2011. “It’s Not Harry Potter…
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