The United States Army in Multi Domain Operations & Global Regime Discussion How would you change, update, and improve the Total Army Analysis process to ensure that as the Army Futures Command rapidly delivers capability to the Army. The Army updates formations to employ those capabilities to win in Large Scale Combat Operations and transition to dominance in Multi Domains Operations.Black Board journal no more than 500 words and NLT 3 sources. Always be careful of the thinking behind proposed changes in Army force structure
By Brig. Gen. John Scales, U.S. Army (Ret.), Foreign Policy, September 15, 2016
According to Stars and Stripes, the Army decided during the summer to deactivate the
Long Range Surveillance (LRS) companies in the force structure — presumably their role
is to be filled with various unmanned platforms. Now, I have never served in a LRS
company so I have no parochial axe to grind, and I am not privy to the various models
and analyses that may have led to this decision. However, I am mindful of a time more
than twenty years ago when I was very much involved in the analyses leading up to some
significant force structure decisions.
A key tool in these analyses was a complex computer model that handled detailed forceon-force scenarios with tens of thousands of troops on either side. The scenarios
generally had U.S. Amy forces defending against a much larger modern army. As I
analyzed results from various runs that employed different force structures and weapons,
I noticed some peculiar results. It seemed that certain sensors dominated the battlefield,
while others were useless or nearly so. Among those “useless” sensors were the LRS
teams placed well behind enemy lines. Curious as to why that might be so, I dug deeper
and deeper into the model. After a fair amount of work, the answer became clear. The
LRS teams were coded, understandably, as “infantry”. According to model logic, direct
fire combat arms units were assumed to open fire on an approaching enemy when within
range and visibility. So, in essence, as I dug deeply into the logic it became obvious that
the model’s LRS teams were compelled to conduct immediate suicidal attacks. No
wonder they failed to be effective!
Conversely, the “Firefinder” radars were very effective in targeting the enemy’s artillery.
Even better, they were wizards of survivability, almost never being knocked out.
Somewhat skeptical by this point, I dug some more. Lo and behold, the “vulnerable area”
for Firefinders was given in the input database as “0”. They could not be killed!
Armed with all this information, I confronted the senior system analysts. My LRS concerns
were dismissed. This was a U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command-approved model
run by the Field Artillery School, so infantry stuff was important to them only in terms of
loss exchange ratios and the like. The Infantry School could look out for its own. Bringing
up the invulnerability of the Firefinder elicited a different response, though. No one wanted
to directly address this and the analysts found fascinating objects to look at on the other
side of the room. Finally, the senior guy looked at me and said, “If we let the Firefinders
be killed, the model results are uninteresting.” Translation: None of their force structure,
weapons mix, or munition choices had much effect on the overall model results unless
the divisional Firefinders survived. We always lost in a big way.
At the time I was in no position to raise hell about this but it bothered me. That model had
been used for years to determine “optimum” courses of action, decisions that affected the
allocation of billions of dollars. I know these defects persisted into the 1990s, although I
hope that by now they have been fixed.
My tale is merely cautionary. Do the senior decisionmakers truly understand the models
and analyses that ground this force structure choice? Has there been a thorough
discussion and understanding of the assumptions that are often deeply embedded in the
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TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-1
From the Chief of Staff of the Army
America’s adversaries have studied US operations closely during Operations DESERT
STORM, IRAQI FREEDOM, and ENDURING FREEDOM. They know the American way of
war well and that we excel in a way of war that emphasizes joint and combined operations;
technological dominance; global power projection; strategic, operational, and tactical maneuver;
effective joint fires; sustainment at scale; and mission command initiative.
Simultaneously, emerging technologies like artificial intelligence, hypersonics, machine
learning, nanotechnology, and robotics are driving a fundamental change in the character of war.
As these technologies mature and their military applications become more clear, the impacts have
the potential to revolutionize battlefields unlike anything since the integration of machine guns,
tanks, and aviation which began the era of combined arms warfare.
Strategic competitors like Russia and China are synthesizing emerging technologies with
their analysis of military doctrine and operations. They are deploying capabilities to fight the US
through multiple layers of stand-off in all domains – space, cyber, air, sea, and land. The military
problem we face is defeating multiple layers of stand-off in all domains in order to maintain the
coherence of our operations.
Therefore, the American way of war must evolve and adapt. The U.S. Army in Multi-Domain
Operations, 2028 is the first step in our doctrinal evolution. It describes how US Army forces, as
part of the Joint Force, will militarily compete, penetrate, dis-integrate, and exploit our adversaries
in the future.
This product is not a final destination, but is intended to provide a foundation for continued
discussion, analysis, and development. We must examine all aspects of our warfighting methods
and understand how we enable the joint force on the future battlefield. We must challenge our
underlying assumptions, and we must understand the capabilities and goals of our potential
enemies. That is how we change our warfighting techniques and build the fighting forces we need
in the future. It is also how we maximize deterrence and, if necessary, win future wars.
Read, study, and dissect the multi-domain operations concept in this document. Every one
of you is part of our evolution and the construction of the future force, and we want your critical
feedback. Our intent is to publish another iteration in about 12 months following feedback from
various wargames and exercises. We are laying the cornerstone for the success of our future Army
in a profession where there is no room for second place. With your help, we will ensure America’s
Army is ready, lethal, and prepared to destroy its enemies now and in the future, in any domain,
Mark A. Milley
General, United States Army
39th Chief of Staff
TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-1
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TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-1
From the Commanding General, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command
One of our duties as Army professionals is to think deeply and clearly about the problem of armed
conflict in the future so that we can build and prepare our Army to deter that conflict and, if
necessary, fight and win it. As we consider the future, our Army’s challenge is clear. In a new era
of great power competition, our nation’s adversaries seek to achieve their strategic aims, short of
conflict, by the use of layered stand-off in the political, military and economic realms to separate
the U.S. from our partners. Should conflict come, they will employ multiple layers of stand-off in
all domains–land, sea, air, space and cyberspace–to separate U.S. forces and our allies in time,
space, and function in order to defeat us.
If they are successful, we risk losing the strategic depth that gives our Joint Force its operational
advantage and enables our offensive military capability. As a nation, we rely on our ability to
project power from the Continental United States and to integrate the actions of the Joint Force
globally. Our adversaries seek to fracture this capability and erode the United States’ strategic
advantage–the greatest challenge to U.S. security, power and influence to emerge in the 21st
century. The American way of war must evolve if we are to successfully thwart the aims of our
adversaries in competition or to defeat them in conflict.
The U.S. Army in Multi-Domain Operations 2028 concept proposes a series of solutions to solve
the problem of layered standoff. The central idea in solving this problem is the rapid and
continuous integration of all domains of warfare to deter and prevail as we compete short of
armed conflict. If deterrence fails, Army formations, operating as part of the Joint Force,
penetrate and dis-integrate enemy anti-access and area denial systems; exploit the resulting
freedom of maneuver to defeat enemy systems, formations and objectives and to achieve our
own strategic objectives; and consolidate gains to force a return to competition on terms more
favorable to the U.S., our allies and partners.
To achieve this, the Army must evolve our force, and our operations, around three core tenets.
Calibrated force posture combines position and the ability to maneuver across strategic distances.
Multi-domain formations possess the capacity, endurance and capability to access and employ
capabilities across all domains to pose multiple and compounding dilemmas on the adversary.
Convergence achieves the rapid and continuous integration of all domains across time, space and
capabilities to overmatch the enemy. Underpinning these tenets are mission command and
disciplined initiative at all warfighting echelons.
To win tomorrow, we must evolve how we organize and integrate the Army as part of the Joint
Force. To do this we will (1) continue to refine a warfighting concept that provides our azimuth to
the future–The U.S. Army in Multi-Domain Operations 2028 is that concept; (2) develop a
comprehensive Army modernization strategy linked to this concept and synchronized with a
joint approach to force development; (3) drive rapid, non-linear solutions in Army
doctrine, organization, training, material, leadership and education, personnel, facilities, and
policy; ( 4) deepen the operational integration of general purpose and special operations forces
and with our allies and partners.
TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-1
This concept is about warfighting and its centerpiece is the American Soldier. Throughout the
United States Army’s 243-year history, the grit, ingenuity and initiative of the American Soldier
stands at the forefront of our Nation’s success in peace, competition, and armed conflict.
As a concept, this is not the final answer. We will refine and update this concept as we learn from
our operations, exercises and experiments as well as from other services, allies and partners and
even our adversaries. The evolution of this concept into doctrine and practice will inform the way
the Army recruits, trains, educates, operates and drives constant improvement and change to ensure
the U.S. Army can deter, fight and win on any battlefield, against any foe, now and into the future.
TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-1
Figure 1. Logic map
TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-1
1. Purpose: From Multi-Domain Battle to Multi-Domain Operations. TRADOC Pamphlet
525-3-1, The U.S. Army in Multi-Domain Operations 2028 expands upon the ideas previously
explained in Multi-Domain Battle: Evolution of Combined Arms for the 21st Century. It
describes how the Army contributes to the Joint Force’s principal task as defined in the
unclassified Summary of the National Defense Strategy: deter and defeat Chinese and Russian
aggression in both competition and conflict. The U.S. Army in Multi-Domain Operations
concept proposes detailed solutions to the specific problems posed by the militaries of postindustrial, information-based states like China and Russia. Although this concept focuses on
China and Russia, the ideas also apply to other threats.
2. The problem.
a. Emerging operational environment. Four interrelated trends are shaping competition and
conflict: adversaries are contesting all domains, the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS), and the
information environment and U.S. dominance is not assured; smaller armies fight on an
expanded battlefield that is increasingly lethal and hyperactive; nation-states have more
difficulty in imposing their will within a politically, culturally, technologically, and strategically
complex environment; and near-peer states more readily compete below armed conflict making
deterrence more challenging. 1 Dramatically increasing rates of urbanization and the strategic
importance of cities also ensure that operations will take place within dense urban terrain.
Adversaries, such as China and Russia, have leveraged these trends to expand the battlefield in
time (a blurred distinction between peace and war), in domains (space and cyberspace), and in
geography (now extended into the Strategic Support Area, including the homeland) to create
tactical, operational, and strategic stand-off. 2 For the purpose of this document, Russia serves as
the pacing threat. In fact, Russia and China are different armies with distinct capabilities, but
assessed to operate in a sufficiently similar manner to orient on their capabilities collectively.
b. China and Russia in competition. In a state of continuous competition, China and Russia
exploit the conditions of the operational environment to achieve their objectives without
resorting to armed conflict by fracturing the U.S.’s alliances, partnerships, and resolve. They
attempt to create stand-off through the integration of diplomatic and economic actions,
unconventional and information warfare (social media, false narratives, cyber attacks), and the
actual or threatened employment of conventional forces. 3 By creating instability within
countries and alliances, China and Russia create political separation that results in strategic
ambiguity reducing the speed of friendly recognition, decision, and reaction. Through these
competitive actions, China and Russia believe they can achieve objectives below the threshold of
Hyperactive means more active than usual or desirable; hyper-competitive during competition and hyper-violent in armed conflict.
Stand-off is the strategic and operational effect Russia, China, and their surrogates are attempting to achieve. It is achieved with both political
and military capabilities. Stand-off is the political, temporal, spatial, and functional separation that enables freedom of action in any, some, or all
domains, the EMS, and the information environment to achieve strategic and/or operational objectives before an adversary can adequately
Within this document, the term information warfare denotes actions taken by an adversary or enemy. The scope and meaning of the term are
derived from Russian doctrine. The document refers to friendly actions as information environment operations.
TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-1
c. China and Russia in armed conflict. In armed conflict, China and Russia seek to achieve
physical stand-off by employing layers of anti-access and area denial systems designed to rapidly
inflict unacceptable losses on U.S. and partner military forces and achieve campaign objectives
within days, faster than the U.S. can effectively respond. Over the last twenty-five years, China
and Russia invested in and developed a systematic approach to “fracture” AirLand Battle by
countering the Joint Force’s increasingly predictable use of time-phased and domain-federated
operational approaches in armed conflict. The resulting anti-access and area denial systems
create strategic and operational stand-off that separates the elements of the Joint Force in time,
space, and function. Moreover, both China and Russia are continuing to improve these antiaccess and area denial systems and are proliferating the associated technologies and techniques
to other states. The Joint Force has not kept pace with these developments. It is still designed
for operations in relatively uncontested environments that allow for sequential campaigns based
on predictable approaches that assume air and naval supremacy: extensive shaping with air and
naval strikes before the final destruction of severely degraded enemy forces through joint
combined arms operations.
3. Conducting Multi-Domain Operations.
a. Central idea. Army forces, as an element of the Joint Force, conduct Multi-Domain
Operations to prevail in competition; when necessary, Army forces penetrate and dis-integrate
enemy anti-access and area denial systems and exploit the resultant freedom of maneuver to
achieve strategic objectives (win) and force a return to competition on favorable terms. 4
b. Tenets of the Multi-Domain Operations. The Army solves the problems presented by
Chinese and Russian operations in competition and conflict by applying three interrelated tenets:
calibrated force posture, multi-domain formations, and convergence. Calibrated force posture is
the combination of position and the ability to maneuver across strategic distances. Multi-domain
formations possess the capacity, capability, and endurance necessary to operate across multiple
domains in contested spaces against a near-peer adversary. Convergence is rapid and continuous
integration of capabilities in all domains, the EMS, and information environment that optimizes
effects to overmatch the enemy through cross-domain synergy and multiple forms of attack all
enabled by mission command and disciplined initiative. The three tenets of the solution are
mutually reinforcing and common to all Multi-Domain Operations, though how they are realized
will vary by echelon and depend upon the specific operational situation.
c. Multi-Domain Operations and strategic objectives. The Joint Force must defeat
adversaries and achieve strategic objectives in competition, armed conflict, and in a return to
competition. In competition, the Joint Force expands the competitive space through active
engagement to counter coercion, unconventional warfare, and information warfare directed
against partners. 5 These actions simultaneously deter escalation, defeat attempts by adversaries
to “win without fighting,” and set conditions for a rapid transition to armed conflict. In armed
Dis-integrate refers to breaking the coherence of the enemy’s system by destroying or disrupting its subcomponents (such as command and
control means, intelligence collection, critical nodes, etc.) degrading its ability to conduct operations while leading to a rapid collapse of the
enemy’s capabilities or will to fight. This definition revises the current doctrinal defeat mechanism disintegrate.
Expanding the competitive space is a key idea from the 2018 National Defense Strategy, and is a logical extension of the 2017 Joint Concept for
Integrated Campaigning. Expanding the competitive space refers to taking actions to expand options (diplomatic, information, military,
economic, etc.) for the political leadership and extending competition in time while also deterring escalation to armed conflict.
TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-1
conflict, the Joint Force defeats aggression by optimizing effects from across multiple domains at
decisive spaces to penetrate the enemy’s strategic and operational anti-access and area denial
systems, dis-integrate the components of the enemy’s military system, and exploit freedom of
maneuver necessary to achieve strategic and operational objectives that create conditions
favorable to a political outcome. In the return to competition, the Joint Force consolidates gains
and deters further conflict to allow the regeneration of forces and the re-establishment of a
regional security order aligned with U.S. strategic objectives.
d. Multi-domain problems and solutions. To achieve these strategic objectives, the Army,
as part of and with the Joint Force and partners, must solve five operational problems:
(1) How does the Joint Force compete to enable the defeat of an adversary’s
operations to destabilize the region, deter the escalation of violence, and, should violence
escalate, enable a rapi…
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