University of Adelide Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Sustainability Study From the given Set sources document ( 7 sources ) – Need to find key c

University of Adelide Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Sustainability Study From the given Set sources document ( 7 sources ) – Need to find key challenging issue of e waste management.and followed with minimum 3 sub issues from the same set source.The information written should be from the set sources only. No additional info from various means should not be used. Reference (set source )is required Enclosed are the required documents for the assignment. ELEC ENG 7057
Set Sources: Assignment 1 (Onshore)
S1 2020
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Source 1
Osibanjo, O and Nnorom IC 2007, ‘The challenge of electronic waste (e-waste) management in
developing countries’, Waste Management and Research, vol. 25, pp. 489-501.
O. Osibanjo and I. C. Nnorom, “The challenge of electronic waste (e-waste) management in developing
countries,” Waste Manage. Res., vol. 25, pp. 489-501, Jun. 2007.
Source 2
Source 3
Source 4
Source 5
Source 6
Hossain, Md S, Al-Hamadani, SMZF, Rahman, Md T 2015, ‘E-waste: A Challenge for Sustainable
Development’, Journal of Health & Pollution, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 3-11.
Md. S. Hossain et al., “E-waste: A Challenge for Sustainable Development,” J. Health & Pollution, vol. 5,
no. 9, pp. 3-11, Dec. 2015.
Morris, A and Metternicht, G 2016, ‘Assessing effectiveness of WEEE management policy in Australia’,
Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 181, pp. 218-230.
A. Morris and G. Metternicht, “Assessing effectiveness of WEEE management policy in Australia,” J. Env.
Manage., vol. 181, pp. 218-230, Oct. 2016.
Seeberger, J, Grandhi, R, Kim, SS, Mase, WA, Reponen, T, Ho, S, Chen, A 2016, ‘E-waste management in
the United States and Public Health Implications’, Journal of Environmental Health, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 816.
J. Seeberger et al., “E-waste management in the United States and Public Health Implications,” J. Env.
Health, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 8-16, Oct. 2016.
Yong, YS, Lim, YA, Ilankoon, IMSK 2019, ‘An analysis of electronic waste management strategies and
recycling operations in Malaysia: Challenges and future prospects’, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol.
224, pp. 151-166.
Y.S. Yong et al., “An analysis of electronic waste management strategies and recycling operations in
Malaysia: Challenges and future prospects”, J. Cleaner Production, vol. 224, pp. 151-166, Mar. 2019.
Shi, J, Wang, R, Chen, W, Xing, L and Jin, M 2020, ‘Bi-objective design of household E-waste collection
with public advertising and competition from informal sectors’, Waste Management, vol. 102, pp. 65-75.
J. Shi et al., “Bi-objective design of household E-waste collection with public advertising and competition
from informal sectors,” Waste Manage., vol. 102, pp. 65-75, Feb. 2020.
Source 7
Aswathi, AK and Li, J 2017, ‘Management of electrical and electronic waste: A comparative evaluation of
China and India’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 76, pp. 434-447.
A. K. Aswathi and J. Li, “Management of electrical and electronic waste: A comparative evaluation of
China and India,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 76, pp. 434-447, Mar. 2017.
Source 1
Osibanjo, O and Nnorom IC 2007, ‘The challenge of electronic waste (e-waste) management in
developing countries’, Waste Management and Research, vol. 25, pp. 489-501.
O. Osibanjo and I. C. Nnorom, “The challenge of electronic waste (e-waste) management in developing
countries,” Waste Manage. Res., vol. 25, pp. 489-501, Jun. 2007.
[p. 496] Repair and reuse activities
The second-hand or e-scraps exports into developing countries are rarely tested for
functionality; up to 75% of such exports entering Nigeria are unusable junk[ ]. […] [T]here is
[a] high level of repair and reuse activity in Nigeria. At the computer village in Lagos, the hub
of second-hand EEE [Electrical and Electronic Equipment ] in Nigeria, BAN [The Basel Action
Network] observed that there are about 3500 registered businesses involved in all manner of
sales and repair of computers, phones, peripherals and software. BAN observed that about
half of the businesses located at the computer village are involved in refurbishment and repair
of imported used IT [information technology] equipment and parts.
Disposal with municipal solid waste
Management of discarded electronics in the developing countries is taking place through
traditional methods of MSW [municipal solid waste] management, namely landfilling and
Up to 90% of e-scrap was landfilled in 2003, even in the developed countries (Antrekowitsch
et al. 2006). A tremendous amount of e-waste exported into the developing countries and the
processed residues are not recycled but simply dumped. Materials dumped include leaded
CRT [cathode ray tube] glass, burned or acid-reduced circuit boards, mixed dirty plastics
including Mylar and videotapes, toner cartridges and considerable material apparently too
difficult to separate. Residues from recycling operations including ashes from numerous open
burning operations and spent acid baths and sludge are also dumped (Roman & Puckett 2002).
Obsolete electronic devices in Nigeria are usually stored for a while for a perceived value
(physical or emotional) before disposal with municipal waste. In government agencies and
some private establishment[s], these items are usually stored in basements or in storerooms
until directives are issued for their disposal. Because of the absence of a special framework
for the separate collection and management of e-waste in Nigeria, these devices are disposed
with MSW at open dumps and into surface waters. Our survey at selected towns in Nigeria
(Lagos, Benin and Aha) indicated there are [ ] attempts at recovering materials from e-scrap
using crude processes[, a] typical example of which is the open burning of copper wire and
other cable and EEE components to salvage copper. However, there are indications that waste
collectors have also started collecting selected components of EEE, especially the printed
wiring board, for export probably to Asia for recycling.
Crude recycling
Informal dismantling and recycling of e-wastes, the so-called ‘backyard activities’ is emerging
in developing countries. Crude recycling activities are taking place in Asia and Africa aimed at
material recovery from e-waste. In these regions, e-scrap is mostly treated in ‘backyard
operations’ using open sky incineration, cyanide leaching and simple smelters to recover
mainly copper, gold and silver with comparatively low yields (Hagelekun 2006a). The BAN
Study ‘Exporting Harm, the High-tech Trashing of Asia’ described the crude recycling activities
Source 1
taking place in China and other Asian countries. For example, wires are collected and burned
in open piles to recover re-saleable copper. Circuit boards are treated in open acid baths next
to rivers to extract copper and precious metals (Roman & Puckett 2002, Williams 2005). A pilot
program conducted by the US EPA [Environmental Protection Authority] that collected scrap
in a state in the US (San Jose, CA) estimated that it was 10 times cheaper to ship CRT monitors
to China than it was to recycle them in the US (Roman & Puckett 2002).
These crude methods result in loss of resources, energy wastages and environmental
pollution. Moreover, such ‘backyard recyclers’ do not have wastewater treatment facilities,
exhaust/waste gas treatment and personal health protection equipment (Roman & Puckett
2002; Liu et al. 2005). Unfortunately, most of the participants in this sector are not aware of
the environmental and health risks and do not know better practices or have no access to
investment capital to finance even profitable improvements or implement safety measures
(Widmer et al. 2005).
Besides the tremendous adverse effects on environment and health in these regions, this also
means a huge and mostly irreversible waste of resources. It is of particular irony if materials
that had been collected, for example, in Europe under the WEEE [waste electrical and
electronic equipment] directive aiming at fostering the environmentally sound reuse/recycling
and to preserve resources finally ends up in such a ‘recycling’ environment (Hageluken 2006a).
As long as these e-scraps are exported from Europe and North America to developing
countries for crude recycling, it is unlikely that there will be sufficient incentives to invest in
the necessary infrastructure for efficiently and safely recycling of e-waste in these developed
regions (Roman & Puckett 2002).Infrastructure determines the process methods and amounts
of waste that can be processed. Collection [497] methodology, sorting and recovery
technologies, material recycling processes and disposal methods are key factors in the
comprehensive recycling of e-waste (Kang & Schoenung 2004).
Hicks et al. (2005) observed that there are number of reasons for the existence of large and
effective informal WEEE processing sectors in developing or industrializing countries:

In developing and industrializing countries waste is viewed as a resource and incomegenerating opportunity.

There is a general reluctance to pay for waste recycling and disposal services, particularly
when consumers can make some money by selling their old and broken appliances.

Waste collection and disposal services in developing countries cost a higher proportion
of the average income than in developed countries.

There is lack of awareness among consumers, collectors and recyclers of the potential
hazards of WEEE, crude ‘backyard’ recycling and other disposal practices.
[p. 498] Pollution from present management practices
The actual operation of several end-of-life processes for e-waste such as landfill, incineration
with MSW and mechanical recycling results in emissions of heavy metals and organic
pollutants to air, water, soil and residual potentially hazardous waste. E-waste contains more
than 1000 different substances, many of which are highly toxic (Widmer et al. 2005). WEEE is
approximately 1% of total landfill, yet it is responsible for approximately 50–80% of the heavy
metals in leachate (Chiodo et al. 2002). In addition, 70% of heavy metals (including Hg and Cd)
Source 1
found in the soil are of electronic origin (Milojkovic & Litovski 2005). The processing of e-waste
in developing countries is profitable because the labour costs are cheap and environmental
regulations are lax in comparison with developed countries (Roman & Puckett 2002,
BAN/SVTC 2002). Consequently, crude methods are adopted to reclaim metals and many
kinds of pollutants are generated during these processes creating serious problems to [the]
ecological environment and human health. Studies at Guiyu, China revealed high levels of
environmental pollution from crude recycling activities (Roman & Puckett 2002, Liu et al.
2006). Poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and
polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected in environmental samples at levels up
to 593, 733 and 2196 mg kg–1, respectively (Leung et al. 2004 cited in Liu et al. 2006). Heavy
metals Cu, Pb and Zn were also determined at levels up to 711, 190 and 242 mg kg –1,
respectively. Similar investigation by BAN at the same e-scrap recycling site (Guiyu, China) also
indicated high levels of environmental contamination. Surface water, sediments and soil
samples at one such site revealed alarming levels of heavy metals that correspond very
directly with those metals commonly found in computers. Chromium, tin, and barium were
found at levels 1388, 152 and 10 times (respectively) higher than the EPA threshold for
environmental risk in the soil (Roman & Puckett 2002). Due to high levels of heavy metal
pollution of surface and ground water in the town, Guiyu’s drinking water has been delivered
from a nearby town since approximately 1 year after the appearance of the WEEE industry
over a decade ago (Hicks et al. 2005).
Source 2
Hossain, Md S, Al-Hamadani, SMZF, Rahman, Md T 2015, ‘E-waste: A Challenge for Sustainable
Development’, Journal of Health & Pollution, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 3-11.
Md. S. Hossain et al., “E-waste: A Challenge for Sustainable Development,” J. Health & Pollution, vol.
5, no. 9, pp. 3-11, Dec. 2015.
[p. 7] Electrical and electronic goods contain a variety of metals, many of which are toxic to
humans and ecosystems. More than 60% of e-waste consists of these different metal ions and
about 2.7% are toxic metals.4 The proper management (collecting, storage, recycling,
disposing) of these wastes is important because of hazardous chemicals in the waste such as
aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), bismuth (Bi), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel
(Ni), lead (Pb) and antimony (Sb). Furthermore, the combustion of these e-wastes releases
polycyclic [p. 8] aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated
dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/ Fs) gases that effect some or all bio-physical
environments (soil, atmosphere, aquatic). Consequently, these releases adversely affect the
surroundings and cause detrimental effects to human health. 36,37 Brigden and Labunska found
that PBDEs and PCDD/Fs contaminate the surrounding soil, air and water causing a depletion
of fertility and water quality, as well as acting as neuro-toxicants and endocrine disruptors in
infants and children.38, 17 These toxic chemical compounds and persistent organic pollutants
(POP) affect the environment through the ecological food chain and adversely affect human
health and ecosystems. Bioaccumulation (i.e., PBCs, BFRs and several chemical elements) in
the food chain affects human health, especially in pregnant and breastfeeding women. In
addition, they cause endocrine disruption and this, in turn, affects the nervous system, preand post-natal development and genotoxicity. Dioxins may alter the methylation status of
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).2 Furthermore, they also change the serum levels of mothers and
newborns and are a potential hazard to maternal health and child development, as well
producing hormonal effects by BFRs and thyroid-disrupting effects in developmental life
stages.39, 40
The adverse impacts of e-waste on humans and ecosystems is also crucial in South Asian
countries undergoing rapid economic growth, lifestyle change, socio-technical transition and
transformation, which is in complete contrast to their lack of effective waste management
tools. For example, in Bangladesh, only between 20% to 30% of the 3.2 MT generated e-waste
each year is recycled and the rest is dumped in landfills. 41 There are about 120,000 poor urban
people involved in the informal e-waste trade chain in Dhaka, of which 50,000 are children. 42,30
The Environment and Social Development Organization (ESDO) report found that the lack of
an efficient e-waste management system in Bangladesh was the cause of death for
approximately 15% of the illegal child laborers employed in this sector, and 83% were found
to be exposed to long term health problems. 8 Furthermore, Chowdhury et al. found that 36.3%
of 1,000 women living near the informal recycling sites experienced stillbirths in the Sylhet
region of Bangladesh and 64% had hearing and/or vision [p. 9] problems.43 In India, more than
1 million poor people are involved in e-waste handling.44 In addition to these statistics, 50,000
tons of e-waste is dumped in landfills annually, ultimately contaminating the Lyari and Arabian
Seas and adversely affecting marine ecosystems.17
Source 2
1. Zeng X, Song Q, Li J, Yuan
W, Duan H, Liu L. Solving ewaste problem using an
integrated mobile recycling
plant. J Clean Prod [Internet].
2015 Mar [cited 2015 Nov
2];90:55-9. Available from:
0683 Subscription required to
2. Frazzoli C, Orisakwe OE,
Dragone R, Mantovani A.
Diagnostic health risk
assessment of electronic waste
on the general population in
developing countries’ scenarios.
EnvironImpact Assess Rev
[Internet]. 2010 Nov [cited 2015
Nov 2];30(6):388-99. Available
1486 Subscription required to
3. 2009 hazardous waste report:
instructions and form [Internet].
Washington, D.C.: United States
Environmental Protection
Agency; 2009 Nov [cited 2015
Nov 2].80 p. Available from:
4. Widmer R, Krapf HO,
Khetriwal DS, Schnellmann
M, Boni H. Global perspectives
on e-waste. Environ Impact
Assess Rev [Internet]. 2005 Jul
[cited 2015 Nov 2];25(5):43658. Available from:
0466 Subscription required to
5. Basel conference addresses
electronic wastes challenge
[Internet]. Nairobi Conference
on Basel Convention to Address
the Growing Challenge of
Electronic Wastes; 2006 Nov 27
– Dec 1; Gigiri, Nairob. Nairobi,
Kenya: United Nations
Environment Programme; 2006
Nov 27 [cited 2015 Nov 2].
[about 3 screens]. Available
6. Schwarzer S, Bono AD,
Giuliani G, Kluser S, Peduzzi
P. E-waste, the hidden side of IT
equipment’s manufacturing and
use [Internet]. Nairobi, Kenya:
United Nations Environment
Programme; 2005 Jan [cited
2015 Nov 2]. 5 p. Available
7. Ciocoiu CN, Colesca SE,
Burcea S. An AHP approach to
evaluate the implementation of
WEEE management systems
[Internet]. Proceedings of the
5th WSEAS International
Conference on Renewable
Energy Sources; 2011 Jul 1-3;
Iasi, Romania. Bucharest,
Romania: Recent Researches in
Environment, Energy Planning
and Pollution; 2011 [cited 2015
Nov 2]. p. 233-8. Available
8. Guidelines for e-waste
management in Bangladesh
[Internet]. Dhaka, Bangladesh:
Environment and Social
Development Organization;
2012 Dec [cited 2015 Nov 2]. 40
p. Available from:
9. Saranga A. E-waste free Sri
Lanka [Internet]. Colombo, Sri
Lanka: Daily News; 2014 May
22 [cited 2015 Nov 2]. Available
required to view.
10. Robinson BH. E-waste: an
assessment of global production
and environmental impacts. Sci
Total Environ [Internet]. 2009
Dec 20 [cited 2015 Nov
2];408(2):183-91. Available
11. Borthakur A, Sinha K.
Generation of electronic waste
in India: current scenario,
dilemmas and stakeholders. Afr
J EnvironSci Technol [Internet].
2013 Sep [cited 2015 Nov
2];7(9):899-910. Available
12. OECD environmental
outlook to 2030 [Internet]. Paris,
France: Organization for
Economic Co-operation and
Development; 2008 [cited 2015
Nov 2]. 14 p. Available form:
13. Cobbing M. Toxic tech: not
in our backyard [Internet].
Amsterdam, The Netherlands:
Greenpeace International; 2008
Feb [cited 2015 Nov 2]. 12p.
Available from:
14. Pinto VN. E-waste hazard:
the impending challenge. Indian
J Occup Environ Med [Internet].
2008 Aug [cited 2015 Nov
2];12(2):65-70. Available from:
15. Guidelines for
environmentally sound
management of e-waste
[Internet]. Delhi, India: Central
Pollution Control Board; 2008
Mar 12 [cited 2015 Nov 2]. 86…
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