University of South Florida Chapter 15 Pluralism and Multiculturalism Discussion Hello there I am  taking a test in forensic anthropologist . its onlines t

University of South Florida Chapter 15 Pluralism and Multiculturalism Discussion Hello there I am  taking a test in forensic anthropologist . its onlines test file in excel document . I did most of the questions in it but couldnt do two questions 
the ones i struggled with was in sheet 3, last question (p(x>4) and sheet 4 Q6b and Q7 the (x<100-*<80) and P(X>100). Chapter 15
Women:
The Oppressed Majority
Women and Minority Status
• Subordinate status means confinement to
subordinate roles
– Not justified by a person’s abilities
• Biological differences between males and
females
• Must separate differences of gender from
those produced by sexism
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Women and Minority Status
• Feminist movement has a long history
• Child care & housework disproportionate
responsibilities of women
• People find it difficult to conceptualize
women as a subordinate group
– Not all women live in ghettos
– No longer attend inferior schools
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Women and Minority Status
• Five properties of a subordinate or
minority group
– 1. Women experience unequal treatment
– 2. Women have physical and cultural
characteristics that distinguish them from men
– 3. Membership in the subordinate group is
involuntary
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Women and Minority Status
– 4. Women are aware of their subordinate
status and have a sense of solidarity
– 5. Women are not forced to marry; many feel
subordinate status defined within marriage
• Sexism
– The ideology that one sex is superior to the
other
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Women and Minority Status
• Androgyny
– The view that there are few differences
between the sexes
• Permits people to see that humans can be both
aggressive and expressive
– Depending on the situation
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Gender Roles
• Gender Roles
– Society’s expectations of the proper
behavior, attitudes, and activities of males
and females
• Acceptable behavior for men and women
change over time in a society
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Gender Roles
• Socialization has powerful impact on
development of females and males in US
• Origin of gender roles are not clear
– Animal studies and gender
– Cross-cultural studies and gender
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sociological Perspective
• Gender differences maintained in our
culture through systematic socialization
• Gender differentiation in US culture
embedded in social institutions
– Family, education, religion, politics, economy,
medicine, and mass media
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sociological Perspective
• Functionalist
– Sex differentiation contributes to overall social
stability
– Persuasive in explaining the way men and
women are brought up is US society
• Conflict Theory
– Relationship between female & male unequal
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sociological Perspective
• Functionalists and conflict theorists
– It is not possible to change gender roles
without revisions in a culture’s social
structure
• Functionalists see potential social disorder or
unknown social consequences
• Conflict theorists contend no social structure is
desirable if maintained through oppression
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Feminist Movement
• Women activists & sympathetic men who
spoke of equal rights were ridiculed
• Emerged during the early part of the
nineteenth century
• Evolved out of oppression of women and
children within colonial family and society
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Feminist Movement
• The Suffrage Movement
• Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott and
Seneca Falls women’s rights convention
• 19th Amendment to the Constitution (1919)
• Movement faded and regained
prominence in the 1960s
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Women’s Liberation Movement
• Role of the civil rights movement and the
re-emergence of feminism
• Several events delayed progress in 1960s
– Civil rights movement and the antiwar
movement slow to embrace women’s rights
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Women’s Liberation Movement
– New Left as sexist as the rest of society in
practice despite talk of equality
– Protest groups rejected women leaders
• Civil rights movement, New Left, & est.
women groups endorsed the movement
• Feminist movement underwent significant
change
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Women’s Liberation Movement
• Founder of National Organization for
Women (NOW)
– Feminine Mystique
• Recognizing that society saw women only as their
children’s mother and their husband’s wife
– Called for restructuring the “institution of
home and wife”
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Economic Picture
• Occupational segregation of women
• Women are concentrated in low paying
occupations
• Increase in female labor force participation
over the last century
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Economic Picture
• Sexism in employment
• Bureau of Labor Statistics segregation
index
• There is a substantial gap in median
earnings between:
– Full-time male and female workers in the
same occupation
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Occupational Segregation
and Discrimination
• Occupational segregation by gender
continues
• Women earnings have increased
significantly over the last quarter century
– From 62 cents to 79 cents for every dollar
earned by men
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Occupational Segregation
and Discrimination
• Sources of discrimination
• Primary cause is segregating influences in
the labor market
• Ideological devaluation of the occupational
roles of women
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Occupational Segregation
and Discrimination
• The social and occupational roles of men
and women have become segregated
– Ideologically
– Physically
– Socially
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Occupational Segregation
and Discrimination
• Efforts to eliminate discrimination as it
applies to women
– Pay Equity (Comparable worth)
• Calls for equal pay for different types of work that
are judged to be comparable by measuring:
– Knowledge; Skills; Effort ; Responsibility; Working
conditions
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Occupational Segregation
and Discrimination
– 1964 Civil Rights Act
• Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
• Primary goal of feminists
– Eliminate sex discrimination in labor force and
equalize job opportunities
• Glass Ceiling
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Occupational Segregation
and Discrimination
• Mommy Track
– Unofficial career track
– Firms use for women who want to divide their
attention between work and family
• Can’t be applied to all women
• Implies that men are not interested in maintaining
balance between work and family
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sexual Harassment
• Unwanted & unwelcome sexual advances
that interfere with a person’s ability to:
– Perform a job and enjoy the benefits of a job
• Sociocultural theory of sexual harassment
– Rooted within patriarchy and male
dominance
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sexual Harassment
• Takes place where the hierarchy of
authority finds White men at the top
– Women’s work is valued less than men’s
• Power theory of sexual harassment
– Rooted within the distribution of power within
organizations
– Function of the difference in power relations
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sexual Harassment
• Conflict Perspective
– Women, especially women of color, are most
likely to be victims of sexual harassment
– Typically are an organization’s most
vulnerable employees in terms of job security
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Feminization of Poverty
• Poverty and women
• Increase in the number of female headed
households; Increase in divorce
• Displaced Homemaker; Declining alimony
and the lack of child support
• Lack of family friendly Federal
policies
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Education
• Sex-segregated classrooms (structure and
tracking by gender)
• Discrimination in admissions and financial
aid by sex
• Increase in the number female faculty on
campuses
• Equal access to educational resources
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Education
• Education Act of 1972 and Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare guidelines
of 1974 and 1975
– Collectively called Title IX provisions
– Schools must make changes or lose federal
assistance
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Family Life
• US society equates work with wages
– Women who do household chores and
volunteer work are given little status
• Sociologist Susan Walzer (1996)
• Media attention (21st century)
– Focused on high profile women who choose
not to climb the last steps of corporate ladder
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Family Life
• Sociologist Arlie Hochschild
– Second Shift
• Issue increasingly important as more mothers work
outside the home
– Mommy Tax
• Economic cost of “second shift”
– Lose job experience
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Abortion
• Controversial subject affecting family life in
US
• Roe v. Wade (January 22, 1973)
• Social class issues and abortion
• Abortion issue centers on the distribution
of power and control over the roles
– And rights of men and women in society
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Abortion
• In terms of social class, right to terminate
pregnancy affected poor people
– 1976 Hyde Amendment
• Banned Medicaid & other federal funds for abortion
– Another obstacle – access to abortion
providers
• Fewer hospitals allowing doctors to perform them
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Political Activity
• Women constitute 53% of the voting
population
• Under-represented in National political
offices
• More representation on Local and State
level
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Political Activity
• Lack of representatives
– Fewer women in business and law– the
grooming ground for a political career.
– Fewer women in political organizations and
decision making.
– Some women may feel that a political career
may interfere with family responsibilities
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Matrix of Domination: Minority
Women
• African American Feminist Patricia Hill
Collins (1990)
• Matrix of Domination
• Gender, race, and social class not only
systems of oppression
• Double Jeopardy: Minority Women
– Subordinate status twice
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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