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Eighth Edition


To Madison, Isla, and Sullivan



Theory and Practice

Eighth Edition

Peter G. Northouse
Western Michigan University



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Copyright © 2019 by SAGE Publications, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any
information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Northouse, Peter Guy, author.

Title: Leadership : theory and practice / Peter G. Northouse, Western Michigan University.

Description: Eighth Edition. | Thousand Oaks : SAGE Publications, [2018] | Revised edition of the author’s
Leadership, 2015. | Includes index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2017049134 | ISBN 9781506362311 (pbk. : alk. paper)

Subjects: LCSH: Leadership. | Leadership—Case studies.


Classification: LCC HM1261 .N67 2018 | DDC 303.3/4—dc23 LC record available at

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Acquisitions Editor: Maggie Stanley

Content Development Editor: Lauren Holmes

Editorial Assistant: Alissa Nance

Production Editor: Bennie Clark Allen

Copy Editor: Melinda Masson

Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.

Proofreader: Sally Jaskold

Indexer: Jean Casalegno

Cover Designer: Gail Buschman

Marketing Manager: Amy Lammers


Brief Contents

1. Preface
2. Acknowledgments
3. About the Author
4. About the Contributors
5. 1. Introduction
6. 2. Trait Approach
7. 3. Skills Approach
8. 4. Behavioral Approach
9. 5. Situational Approach

10. 6. Path–Goal Theory
11. 7. Leader–Member Exchange Theory
12. 8. Transformational Leadership
13. 9. Authentic Leadership
14. 10. Servant Leadership
15. 11. Adaptive Leadership
16. 12. Followership
17. 13. Leadership Ethics
18. 14. Team Leadership
19. 15. Gender and Leadership
20. 16. Culture and Leadership
21. Author Index
22. Subject Index


Detailed Contents

About the Author
About the Contributors
1. Introduction

Leadership Defined
Ways of Conceptualizing Leadership
Definition and Components

Leadership Described
Trait Versus Process Leadership
Assigned Versus Emergent Leadership
Leadership and Power
Leadership and Coercion
Leadership and Management

Plan of the Book

2. Trait Approach

Five-Factor Personality Model and Leadership
Strengths and Leadership
Emotional Intelligence

How Does the Trait Approach Work?
Case Studies

Case 2.1 Choosing a New Director of Research
Case 2.2 A Remarkable Turnaround
Case 2.3 Recruiting for the Bank

Leadership Instrument
Leadership Trait Questionnaire (LTQ)



3. Skills Approach

Three-Skill Approach
Technical Skills
Human Skills
Conceptual Skills
Summary of the Three-Skill Approach

Skills Model
Individual Attributes
Leadership Outcomes
Career Experiences
Environmental Influences
Summary of the Skills Model

How Does the Skills Approach Work?
Case Studies

Case 3.1 A Strained Research Team
Case 3.2 A Shift for Lieutenant Colonel Adams
Case 3.3 Andy’s Recipe

Leadership Instrument
Skills Inventory


4. Behavioral Approach

The Ohio State Studies
The University of Michigan Studies
Blake and Mouton’s Managerial (Leadership) Grid

Authority–Compliance (9,1)
Country-Club Management (1,9)
Impoverished Management (1,1)
Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5)
Team Management (9,9)


How Does the Behavioral Approach Work?


Case Studies
Case 4.1 A Drill Sergeant at First
Case 4.2 Eating Lunch Standing Up
Case 4.3 We Are Family

Leadership Instrument
Leadership Behavior Questionnaire


5. Situational Approach

Leadership Style
Development Level

How Does the Situational Approach Work?
Case Studies

Case 5.1 Marathon Runners at Different Levels
Case 5.2 Why Aren’t They Listening?
Case 5.3 Getting the Message Across

Leadership Instrument
Situational Leadership® Questionnaire: Sample Items


6. Path–Goal Theory

Leader Behaviors
Directive Leadership
Supportive Leadership
Participative Leadership
Achievement-Oriented Leadership

Follower Characteristics
Task Characteristics

How Does Path–Goal Theory Work?
Case Studies

Case 6.1 Three Shifts, Three Supervisors
Case 6.2 Direction for Some, Support for Others
Case 6.3 Playing in the Orchestra

Leadership Instrument


Path–Goal Leadership Questionnaire

7. Leader–Member Exchange Theory

Early Studies
Later Studies
Leadership Making

How Does LMX Theory Work?
Case Studies

Case 7.1 His Team Gets the Best Assignments
Case 7.2 Working Hard at Being Fair
Case 7.3 Taking on Additional Responsibilities

Leadership Instrument
LMX 7 Questionnaire


8. Transformational Leadership

Transformational Leadership Defined
Transformational Leadership and Charisma
A Model of Transformational Leadership

Transformational Leadership Factors
Transactional Leadership Factors
Nonleadership Factor

Other Transformational Perspectives
Bennis and Nanus
Kouzes and Posner

How Does the Transformational Leadership Approach Work?
Case Studies

Case 8.1 The Vision Failed
Case 8.2 An Exploration in Leadership
Case 8.3 Her Vision of a Model Research Center

Leadership Instrument
Sample Items From the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ)
Form 5X-Short



9. Authentic Leadership

Authentic Leadership Defined
Approaches to Authentic Leadership

Practical Approach
Theoretical Approach

How Does Authentic Leadership Work?
Case Studies

Case 9.1 Am I Really a Leader?
Case 9.2 A Leader Under Fire
Case 9.3 The Reluctant First Lady

Leadership Instrument
Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire


10. Servant Leadership

Servant Leadership Defined
Historical Basis of Servant Leadership
Ten Characteristics of a Servant Leader
Building a Theory About Servant Leadership

Model of Servant Leadership
Antecedent Conditions
Servant Leader Behaviors
Summary of the Model of Servant Leadership

How Does Servant Leadership Work?
Case Studies

Case 10.1 Everyone Loves Mrs. Noble
Case 10.2 Doctor to the Poor
Case 10.3 Servant Leadership Takes Flight

Leadership Instrument
Servant Leadership Questionnaire



11. Adaptive Leadership

Adaptive Leadership Defined

A Model of Adaptive Leadership
Situational Challenges
Technical Challenges
Technical and Adaptive Challenges
Adaptive Challenges
Leader Behaviors
Adaptive Work

How Does Adaptive Leadership Work?
Case Studies

Case 11.1 Silence, Stigma, and Mental Illness
Case 11.2 Taming Bacchus
Case 11.3 Redskins No More

Leadership Instrument
Adaptive Leadership Questionnaire


12. Followership

Followership Defined
Role-Based and Relational-Based Perspectives
Typologies of Followership

The Zaleznik Typology
The Kelley Typology
The Chaleff Typology
The Kellerman Typology

Theoretical Approaches to Followership
Reversing the Lens
The Leadership Co-Created Process
New Perspectives on Followership

Perspective 1: Followers Get the Job Done
Perspective 2: Followers Work in the Best Interest of the
Organization’s Mission
Perspective 3: Followers Challenge Leaders
Perspective 4: Followers Support the Leader
Perspective 5: Followers Learn From Leaders


Followership and Destructive Leaders
1. Our Need for Reassuring Authority Figures
2. Our Need for Security and Certainty
3. Our Need to Feel Chosen or Special
4. Our Need for Membership in the Human Community
5. Our Fear of Ostracism, Isolation, and Social Death
6. Our Fear of Powerlessness to Challenge a Bad Leader

How Does Followership Work?
Case Studies

Case 12.1 Bluebird Care
Case 12.2 Olympic Rowers
Case 12.3 Penn State Sexual Abuse Scandal

Leadership Instrument
Followership Questionnaire


13. Leadership Ethics

Ethics Defined
Level 1. Preconventional Morality
Level 2. Conventional Morality
Level 3. Postconventional Morality

Ethical Theories
Centrality of Ethics to Leadership
Heifetz’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership
Burns’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership
The Dark Side of Leadership
Principles of Ethical Leadership

Ethical Leaders Respect Others
Ethical Leaders Serve Others
Ethical Leaders Are Just
Ethical Leaders Are Honest
Ethical Leaders Build Community

Case Studies

Case 13.1 Choosing a Research Assistant
Case 13.2 How Safe Is Safe?


Case 13.3 Reexamining a Proposal
Leadership Instrument

Ethical Leadership Style Questionnaire (Short Form)

14. Team Leadership

Team Leadership Model
Team Effectiveness
Leadership Decisions
Leadership Actions

How Does the Team Leadership Model Work?
Case Studies

Case 14.1 Can This Virtual Team Work?
Case 14.2 Team Crisis Within the Gates
Case 14.3 Starts With a Bang, Ends With a Whimper

Leadership Instrument
Team Excellence and Collaborative Team Leader Questionnaire


15. Gender and Leadership

The Glass Ceiling Turned Labyrinth
Evidence of the Leadership Labyrinth
Understanding the Labyrinth

Gender Differences in Leadership Styles and Effectiveness
Navigating the Labyrinth

Case Studies

Case 15.1 The “Glass Ceiling”
Case 15.2 Lack of Inclusion and Credibility
Case 15.3 Pregnancy as a Barrier to Job Status

Leadership Instrument
The Gender–Leader Implicit Association Test


16. Culture and Leadership


Culture Defined
Related Concepts


Dimensions of Culture
Uncertainty Avoidance
Power Distance
Institutional Collectivism
In-Group Collectivism
Gender Egalitarianism
Future Orientation
Performance Orientation
Humane Orientation

Clusters of World Cultures
Characteristics of Clusters

Confucian Asia
Eastern Europe
Germanic Europe
Latin America
Latin Europe
Middle East
Nordic Europe
Southern Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa

Leadership Behavior and Culture Clusters
Eastern Europe Leadership Profile
Latin America Leadership Profile
Latin Europe Leadership Profile
Confucian Asia Leadership Profile
Nordic Europe Leadership Profile
Anglo Leadership Profile
Sub-Saharan Africa Leadership Profile
Southern Asia Leadership Profile
Germanic Europe Leadership Profile
Middle East Leadership Profile

Universally Desirable and Undesirable Leadership Attributes


Case Studies
Case 16.1 A Challenging Workplace
Case 16.2 A Special Kind of Financing
Case 16.3 Whose Latino Center Is It?

Leadership Instrument
Dimensions of Culture Questionnaire


Author Index
Subject Index



This eighth edition of Leadership: Theory and Practice is written with the objective of
bridging the gap between the often-simplistic popular approaches to leadership and the
more abstract theoretical approaches. Like the previous editions, this edition reviews and
analyzes a selected number of leadership theories, giving special attention to how each
theoretical approach can be applied in real-world organizations. In essence, my purpose is
to explore how leadership theory can inform and direct the way leadership is practiced.


New to This Edition

First and foremost, this edition includes a new chapter on followership, which examines the
nature of followership, its underpinnings, and how it works. The chapter presents a
definition, a model, and the latest research and applications of this emerging approach to
leadership. It also examines the relationship between followership and destructive, or toxic,
leadership. In addition, the strengths and weaknesses of followership are examined, and a
questionnaire to help readers assess their own follower style is provided. Three case studies
illustrating followership, including one that addresses the Penn State sexual abuse scandal
and another that looks at the 1936 U.S. Olympic rowing team, are presented at the end of
the chapter.

In addition to the discussion of destructive leadership in Chapter 12, this edition includes
an expanded discussion of the dark side of leadership and psuedotransformational
leadership and the negative uses and abuses of leadership in several of the chapters. Readers
will also find that the ethics chapter features a new self-assessment instrument, the Ethical
Leadership Style Questionnaire (ELSQ), which assesses a leader’s style of ethical leadership
and will help leaders understand their decision-making preferences when confronting
ethical dilemmas.

This edition retains many special features from previous editions but has been updated to
include new research findings, figures and tables, and everyday applications for many
leadership topics including leader–member exchange theory, transformational and
authentic leadership, team leadership, the labyrinth of women’s leadership, and historical
definitions of leadership. The format of this edition parallels the format used in earlier
editions. As with previous editions, the overall goal of Leadership: Theory and Practice is to
advance our understanding of the many different approaches to leadership and ways to
practice it more effectively.


Special Features

Although this text presents and analyzes a wide range of leadership research, every attempt
has been made to present the material in a clear, concise, and interesting manner. Reviewers
of the book have consistently commented that clarity is one of its major strengths. In
addition to the writing style, several other features of the book help make it user-friendly.

Each chapter follows the same format: It is structured to include first theory and then
Every chapter contains a discussion of the strengths and criticisms of the approach
under consideration, and assists the reader in determining the relative merits of each
Each chapter includes an application section that discusses the practical aspects of the
approach and how it could be used in today’s organizational settings.
Three case studies are provided in each chapter to illustrate common leadership issues
and dilemmas. Thought-provoking questions follow each case study, helping readers
to interpret the case.
A questionnaire is provided in each of the chapters to help the reader apply the
approach to his or her own leadership style or setting.
Figures and tables illustrate the content of the theory and make the ideas more

Through these special features, every effort has been made to make this text substantive,
understandable, and practical.



This book provides both an in-depth presentation of leadership theory and a discussion of
how it applies to real-life situations. Thus, it is intended for undergraduate and graduate
classes in management, leadership studies, business, educational leadership, public
administration, nursing and allied health, social work, criminal justice, industrial and
organizational psychology, communication, religion, agricultural education, political and
military science, and training and development. It is particularly well suited as a
supplementary text for core organizational behavior courses or as an overview text within
MBA curricula. This book would also be useful as a text in student activities, continuing
education, in-service training, and other leadership-development programs.


Digital Resources


SAGE edge
SAGE edge for Instructors

A password-protected instructor resource site at supports
teaching with high-quality content to help in creating a rich learning environment for
students. The SAGE edge site for this book includes the following instructor resources:

Test banks built on AACSB standards, the book’s learning objectives, and Bloom’s
Taxonomy provide a diverse range of test items with ExamView test generation.
Each chapter includes 100 test questions to give instructors options for assessing
Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for creating a
multimedia presentation for the course.
Lecture notes for each chapter align with PowerPoint slides to serve as an essential
reference, summarizing key concepts to ease preparation for lectures and class
Carefully selected video and multimedia content enhances exploration of key topics
to reinforce concepts and provide further insights.
Sample answers to questions in the text provide an essential reference.
Case notes include summaries, analyses, sample answers to assist with discussion, and
Suggested course projects and assignments help students to apply the concepts they
learn to see how they work in various contexts, providing new perspectives.
Chapter-specific discussion questions for study help launch classroom interaction by
prompting students to engage with the material and by reinforcing important
Exclusive access to influential SAGE journal articles and business cases ties
important research and scholarship to chapter concepts to strengthen learning.
Tables and figures from the book are available for download.
SAGE coursepacks provide easy LMS integration.


SAGE edge for students

The open-access companion website helps students accomplish their coursework goals in an
easy-to-use learning environment:

Mobile-friendly practice quizzes encourage self-guided assessment and practice.
Mobile-friendly flashcards strengthen understanding of key concepts.
Carefully selected video and multimedia content enhances exploration of key topics
to reinforce concepts and provide further insights.
EXCLUSIVE! Full-text SAGE journal articles have been carefully selected to
support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter.
Meaningful web resources with exercises facilitate further exploration of topics.


SAGE coursepacks

SAGE coursepacks make it easy to import our quality instructor and student resource
content into your school’s learning management system (LMS) with minimal effort.
Intuitive and simple to use, SAGE coursepacks give you the control to focus on what really
matters: customizing course content to meet your students’ needs. The SAGE coursepacks,
created specifically for this book, are customized and curated for use in Blackboard, Canvas,
Desire2Learn (D2L), and Moodle.

In addition to the content available on the SAGE edge site, the coursepacks include the

Pedagogically robust assessment tools foster review, practice, and critical thinking
and offer a better, more complete way to measure student engagement:

Diagnostic chapter pretests and posttests identify opportunities for student
improvement, track student progress, and ensure mastery of key learning
Instructions on how to use and integrate the comprehensive assessments and
resources are provided.
Assignable video with corresponding multimedia assessment tools bring
concepts to life that increase student engagement and appeal to different
learning styles. The video assessment questions feed to your gradebook.
Integrated links to the eBook make it easy to access the mobile-friendly
version of the text, which can be read anywhere, anytime.

Interactive eBook

Leadership (8th ed.) is also available as an interactive eBook, which can be packaged with
the text for just $5 or purchased separately. The interactive eBook offers hyperlinks to
original and licensed videos, including Peter Northouse author videos in which the author
illuminates various leadership concepts. The interactive eBook includes additional case
studies, as well as carefully chosen journal articles from the web, all from the same pages
found in the printed text. Users will also have immediate access to study tools such as
highlighting, bookmarking, note-taking/sharing, and more!



Many people directly or indirectly contributed to the development of the eighth edition of
Leadership: Theory and Practice. First, I would like to acknowledge my editor, Maggie
Stanley, and her talented team at SAGE Publications (Lauren Holmes and Alissa Nance),
who have contributed in so many different ways to the quality and success of this book. For
their very capable work during the production phase, I would like to thank the copy editor,
Melinda Masson, and the project editor, Bennie Clark Allen. In her own unique way, each
of these people made valuable contributions to the eighth edition.

I would like to thank the following reviewers for their valuable contributions to the
development of this manuscript:

Sandra Arumugam-Osburn, St. Louis Community College-Forest Park
Rob Elkington, University of Ontario Institute of Technology
Abimbola Farinde, Columbia Southern University
Belinda S. Han, Utah Valley University
Deborah A. Johnson-Blake, Liberty University
Benjamin Kutsyuruba, Queen’s University
Chenwei Liao, Michigan State University
Heather J. Mashburn, Appalachian State University
Comfort Okpala, North Carolina A&T State University
Ric Rohm, Southeastern University
Patricia Dillon Sobczak, Virginia Commonwealth University
Victor S. Sohmen, Drexel University
Brigitte Steinheider, University of Oklahoma-Tulsa
Robert Waris, University of Missouri–Kansas City
Sandi Zeljko, Lake-Sumter State College
Mary Zonsius, Rush University

I would like to thank the following reviewers for their valuable contributions to the
development of the seventh edition manuscript:

Hamid Akbari, Winona State University
Meera Alagaraja, University of Louisville
Mel Albin, Excelsior College
Thomas Batsching, Reutlingen University
Cheryl Beeler, Angelo State University
Julie Bjorkman, Benedictine University
Mark D. Bowman, Methodist University
Dianne Burns, University of Manchester


Eric Buschlen, Central Michigan University
Steven Bryant, Drury University
Daniel Calhoun, Georgia Southern University
David Conrad, Augsburg College
Joyce Cousins, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Denise Danna, LSUHSC School of Nursing
S. Todd Deal, Georgia Southern University
Caroline S. Fulmer, University of Alabama
Brad Gatlin, John Brown University
Greig A. Gjerdalen, Capilano University
Andrew Gonzales, University of California, Irvine
Decker B. Hains, Western Michigan University
Amanda Hasty, University of Colorado–Denver
Carl Holschen, Missouri Baptist University
Kiran Ismail, St. John’s University
Irma Jones, University of Texas at Brownsville
Michele D. Kegley, University of Cincinnati, Blue Ash College
Jeanea M. Lambeth, Pittsburg State University
David Lees, University of Derby
David S. McClain, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Carol McMillan, New School University
Richard Milter, Johns Hopkins University
Christopher Neck, Arizona State University–Tempe
Keeok Park, University of La Verne
Richard Parkman, University of Plymouth
Lori M. Pindar, Clemson University
Chaminda S. Prelis, University of Dubuque
Casey Rae, George Fox University
Noel Ronan, Waterford Institute of Technology
Louis Rubino, California State University, Northridge
Shadia Sachedina, Baruch College (School of Public Affairs)
Harriet L. Schwartz, Carlow University
Kelli K. Smith, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
David Swenson, The College of St. Scholastica
Danny L. Talbot, Washington State University
Robert L. Taylor, University of Louisville
Precious Taylor-Clifton, Cambridge College
John Tummons, University of Missouri
Kristi Tyran, Western Washington University
Tamara Von George, Granite State College
Natalie Walker, Seminole State College
William Welch, Bowie State University


David E. Williams, Texas Tech University
Tony Wohlers, Cameron University
Sharon A. Wulf, Worcester Polytechnic Institute School of Business
Alec Zama, Grand View University
Xia Zhao, California State University, Dominguez Hills

In addition, I would like to thank, for their exceptional work on the leadership profile tool
and the ancillaries, Isolde Anderson (Hope College), John Baker (Western Kentucky
University), Kari Keating (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Kathryn Woods
(Austin Peay State University), Eric Buschlen (Central Michigan University), Lou Sabina
(Stetson University), and Neda Dallal.

A very special acknowledgment goes to Laurel Northouse for her insightful critiques and
ongoing support. In addition, I am especially grateful to Marie Lee for her exceptional
editing and guidance throughout this project. For his review of and comments on the
followership chapter, I am indebted to Ronald Riggio (Claremont McKenna University). I
would like to thank Sarah Chace (Marian University) for her contributions to the adaptive
leadership chapter, Leah Omilion-Hodges (Western Michigan University) for her
contributions to the leader–member exchange chapter, Isolde Anderson (Hope College) for
her comprehensive literature reviews, Robin Curtiss for her contributions to a case study on
followership, and Rudy Leon for her editorial assistance.

Finally, I would like to thank the many undergraduate and graduate students whom I have
taught through the years. Their ongoing feedback has helped clarify my thinking about
leadership and encouraged me to make plain the practical implications of leadership


About the Author

Peter G. Northouse, PhD,
is Professor Emeritus of Communication in the School of Communication at
Western Michigan University. Leadership: Theory and Practice is the best-selling
academic textbook on leadership in the world and has been translated into 13
languages. In addition to authoring publications in professional journals, he is the
author of Introduction to Leadership: Concepts and Practice (now in its fourth edition)
and co-author of Leadership Case Studies in Education (now in its second edition) and
Health Communication: Strategies for Health Professionals (now in its third edition).
His scholarly and curricular interests include models of leadership, leadership
assessment, ethical leadership, and leadership and group dynamics. For more than 30
years, he has taught undergraduate and graduate courses in leadership, interpersonal
communication, and organizational communication on both the undergraduate and
graduate levels. Currently, he is a consultant and lecturer on trends in leadership
research, leadership development, and leadership education. He holds a doctorate in
speech communication from the University of Denver, and master’s and bachelor’s
degrees in communication education from Michigan State University.


About the Contributors

Crystal L. Hoyt
completed her doctorate in social psychology at the University of California, Santa
Barbara, and is a professor of leadership studies and psychology at the University of
Richmond. Her primary research interests include female and minority leaders,
stereotyping and discrimination, stigma, and cognitive biases. In her primary area of
research, she explores the role of beliefs, such as self-efficacy, implicit theories, and
political ideologies, in the experiences and perceptions of women and minorities in
leadership or STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields, or of
those who are overweight. In a more applied fashion, she examines factors, such as
role models, that may buffer individuals from the deleterious effects of stereotypes
and discrimination. Her research appears in journals such as Psychological Science,
Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology
Bulletin, and The Leadership Quarterly. She has published over 50 journal articles and
book chapters, and she has co-edited three books.

Susan E. Kogler Hill
(PhD, University of Denver, 1974) is Professor Emeritus and former chair of the
School of Communication at Cleveland State University. Her research and
consulting have been in the areas of interpersonal and organizational communication.
She specializes in group leadership, teamwork, empowerment, and mentoring. She is
author of a text titled Improving Interpersonal Competence. In addition, she has
written book chapters and published articles in many professional journals.

Stefanie Simon
is an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology at Siena College. She
earned her PhD in social psychology from Tulane University and was the Robert A.
Oden Jr. Postdoctoral Fellow for Innovation in the Liberal Arts at Carleton College
before joining the faculty at Siena. Her research centers on the psychology of
diversity, with a focus on prejudice, discrimination, and leadership. In her work, she
focuses on the perspective of the target of prejudice and …

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