LED 520 Trident International University Dimensions of Culture Paper In this module, you will be measuring your personal cultural values and comparing it t

LED 520 Trident International University Dimensions of Culture Paper In this module, you will be measuring your personal cultural values and comparing it to Hofstede’s dimensions of culture for the culture in which you live. Please start by filling out the following instrument: CVSCALE: The Five-Dimensional Measure of Personal Cultural Values. Then in your weekly journal, reflect on the following questions:

What did the CVSCALE reveal about your cultural values?
How does this compare to your own country’s values according to Hofstede’s research?
What other insights about cultural values have you gained from this questionnaire, the readings, and other aspects of the course so far that will be valuable to you in leading across different cultures?

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The following article may be helpful to you in interpreting your results and reflecting on the insights from this assessment on leadership:

Yoo, B., Naveen D., & Lenartowicz, T. (2011). “Measuring Hofstede’s Five Dimensions of Cultural Values at the Individual Level: Development and Validation of CVSCALE,” Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 23 (3/4), 193–210.

SLP Assignment Expectations
The journal is a cumulative document—you turn in all previous entries with each module,
Include the results from the assessment in your journal.
Each module should add 2–3 pages.
The journal should be thoughtful and insightful, integrating learnings from the assessment with other activities in the module and course.
The format for the journal is less formal than an academic papers (e.g. you can use the 1st person), but you should use headings to organize your thoughts and guide the reader and cite any sources where you are using information, data, or text from an outside source.
Any references should be prepared in APA format in a combined reference list at the end of the journal.
Your journal should be edited and error-free.
Submit your finished paper to TLC by the assignment due date.

All readings are required unless noted as “Optional” or “Not Required.”

After reading the introductory material on the home page, delve more deeply into three different typologies—or ways of classifying cultures. The module starts with a simple dichotomous typology—individualism/collectivism—expands to Hofstede’s six dimensions of culture, and rounds out with a more impressionistic framework—that of Gannon’s cultural metaphors.


Perhaps the oldest construct in thinking about dimensions of culture is the dichotomy of individualism and collectivism. It is a good place to start in understanding cultural dimensions, because it represents one of the more readily apparent characteristics of a culture—the degree to which members of a society think of themselves as individuals separate and distinct from their fellows or as a part of a group that is greater and more significant than the self.

Social scientists have studied the distinction between societies that value obligations to the group over the individual (or vice versa) for nearly 100 years. Beginning with the work of Emile Durkeim, the construct of individualism/collectivism was popularized in modern cross-cultural study largely by the work of Harry Triandis and colleagues.

What follows is an extensive review of the topic that will give you a thorough understanding of the characteristics of individualistic and collectivistic cultures and help you understand how leadership styles and practices vary between the two. In addition, the article discusses how these two orientations can disparately affect economic development, organizational culture, group dynamics, job design and rewards, conflict, and communication. Later parts of the article cover research and methodological concerns—this section is optional.

Note: Although this article was published in 1998, it still constitutes a solid review of a foundational construct in the field of cross-cultural studies. If you have trouble finding it in the library, check the Business Source Complete database after clicking on “Additional Library Resources.”

Earley, P., & Gibson, C. B. (1998). Taking stock in our progress on individualism-collectivism: 100 years of solidarity and community. Journal of Management, 24(3), 265–304. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture

Currently, the most widely used framework for classifying types of cultures is Geert Hofstede’s dimensions of culture. Hofstede, a Dutch social psychologist, once worked with IBM International, where he became interested in cross-cultural influences on work behavior. In 1980, Hofstede published his groundbreaking work, Culture’s Consequences. In this work, Hofstede proposed four cultural dimensions, each forming a bipolar continuum. He argued that cultures can be measured along these dimensions, and that differences in behavior and customs can be explained by mapping these dimensions. The original dimensions were:

Power distance (high or low)
Uncertainty avoidance (high or low)

Although his work has been criticized on methodological grounds and that his dimensions explain only a small part of the variation in behavior across cultures, it remains popular due to the value it has in helping people anticipate, understand, and interpret cultural differences. The following interactive website offers a quick overview of the original four dimensions.

Gill, C. (2017, March 23). Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and differences across cultures. Oxford University Press Blog. Retrieved from https://blog.oup.com/2017/03/hofstede-cultural-dimensions/


Hofstede, G. (n.d). National culture. Geert Hofstede. Retrieved from https://hi.hofstede-insights.com/national-culture

In the years since his first book, Hofstede has expanded his typology to include two additional dimensions. Hear him discuss his recent work in the following video:

Hofstede, G. (2013, January 19). Geert Hofstede—Recent discoveries about cultural differences [Video]. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LBv1wLuY3Ko

Cultural Metaphors

Dr. Martin Gannon has developed an innovative way of thinking about and understanding cultural differences that employs a more “holistic” approach. Rather than breaking down behavior patterns into categories and using those categories to compare cultures, Gannon uses metaphors to help us understand the essence or “feel” of a culture. From Gannon (2002):

A cultural metaphor is any activity, phenomenon, or institution with which members of a given culture emotionally and/or cognitively identify. As such, cultural metaphors reflect the underlying values of a culture. Examples of national cultural metaphors include the Japanese garden, the Chinese family altar, and American football.
Gannon, M. J. (2002). Cultural metaphors: Their use in management practice and as a method for understanding cultures. In W. J. Lonner, D. L. Dinnel, S. A. Hayes, & D. N. Sattler (Eds.), Online Readings in Psychology and Culture (Unit 16, Chapter 4), Center for Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington USA. Not required.

Metaphors reflect the values and core beliefs of the society and thus enable us to grasp the underlying meaning or rationale behind the approaches to such things as negotiation, relationships between boss and subordinate, or many other day-to-day interactions. In other words, they give us a palpable sense of what happens in real-world interactions. The advantage of thinking about culture in terms of metaphor, is that it allows us to compare something quite unfamiliar with something with which we are already familiar. Take the Turkish Coffeehouse, for example:

Turkey is a very unique culture, straddling the intersection between traditional Turkish customs or ways of life and Western ideologies. Turkey embraces the old and the new, Christianity and Islam, modern cities and rural villages that have not changed in decades. The people are known for being hospitable, emotional, and devoted to rich traditions. Significantly, Turks have never been conquered by an outside civilization, but the culture’s origins can be traced to roots in the Mongul, Slav, Greek, Kurd, Armenian, and Arab societies.

Gannon chose the Turkish Coffeehouse as a metaphor for Turkish culture because in it one finds an emphasis on both Islam and secularity; an outlet for community, discourse, and recreation; a customer base reflecting a male-dominated culture; and finally coffeehouses outside of major metropolitan areas are modest—especially when compared with upscale cafes or distinguished pubs characteristic of large cities.

To learn more about cultural metaphors, how they relate to individualism/collectivism, Hofstede’s dimensions, and other topics to be covered in later module, review Chapter 1 of Gannon’s best-selling book:

Gannon, M. J., & Rajnandini K. P. (2013). Chapter 1: Understanding Cultural Metaphors. In Understanding global cultures: Metaphorical journeys through 31 nations, clusters of nations, continents, and diversity. Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA.

For some brief examples of other cultural metaphors described in depth in the book, read the following review of the first edition. If you have trouble finding this in the general library search, click on “Additional Library Resources” and search the Business Source Complete Database.

Vernon-Wortzel, H., & Shrivastava, P. (1996). Understanding global cultures: Metaphorical journeys through 17 countries. Academy of Management Review, 21(1), 288–291.

Application: Negotiation

Understanding or misunderstanding cultural differences can have a profound effect on the successful process and outcome in negotiations. The following short article indicates how Hofstede’s dimensions can inform the best strategy to pursue when negotiating across national borders.

Ramping up your skills for cross-cultural negotiation. (2010). Leader to Leader, (56): 60–61. Running Head: THE CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE SCALE (CQS)
Trident University International
Kendra R. Knuckles
The Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS)
LED 520 Cross-Cultural Communication Leadership
Dr. Janice Spangenburg
July 12, 2020
The Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS)
Abstract. According to Schmidt & Hunter (2000), CQ (Cultural Intelligence) is the
capability of an individual to manage and function effectively in a diverse cultural setting.
Subsequently, Intelligence Quotient or general Intelligence is the capability of an individual to
reason and grasp and reason correctly regarding concepts and solving problems (Ang et al., 2007;
Rockstuhl et al., 2011). One must undertake a multidimensional construct to achieve Cultural
Intelligence which constitutes, motivational, cognitive, metacognitive, and metacognitive
dimensions. This paper takes a depth review of assessment done to ascertain an individual’s CQ
through filling a questionnaire based on the four factors of Cultural Quotient, namely: Strategy,
knowledge, Motivation, and Behavioral factors. The results were interpreted as Strategy, and
Behavior outcomes predicted the respondent’s ability to perform tasks. On the other lane, Behavior
and Motivation results indicated the individual ability of an individual to adjust in three different
forms. In summary: the higher the Strategy and the Behavior CQ score, the higher the task
performance. And the higher the CQ results of motivation and behavior, the higher the adjustment
The score of Each of the Factors
Based on a score scale of 1-7, where: 1 represented strongly disagreeing and seven
represented strongly agreeing. The results from responses aimed at assessing my ability to perform
tasks were relatively high in terms of how I interact and behave in cross-cultural associations, thus
a high behavioral score. Similarly, I heartily agreed with most strategies in the questionnaire,
which best describes my capabilities in situations requiring cultural intelligence. This outcome
implies I scored high in both Strategy CQ and behavior CQ assessments. The results indicate that
as an individual, I can make sense of intercultural experiences, for instance, making judgments in
relation to the personal process of thinking and the thinking processes of others. Therefore, I can
effectively perform tasks and make decisions alongside being able to adapt new nonverbal and
verbal behaviors to suit a specific cultural setup that enhances my task performance in a culturally
diverse work setting.
Similarly, I heartily agreed with most of the questions designed to predict personal
adjustment levels in different forms based on testing CQ motivation and Behavior CQ.
Consequently, the results indicate that I have an interest in learning the cultures of others.
Additionally, I can interact with individuals from different backgrounds, thus adjusting in a
multicultural setup. Lastly, the high Motivation and Behavior CQ results indicate that I can
efficiently adjust in a culturally diverse situation due to a wide range of nonverbal and verbal
capabilities. The strength of being highly strategic and quickly adapting behaviors is that the
individual can fit in any culture setup. On the other hand, the individual is limited by the
socialization process to quickly adapt and adjust in a culturally diverse set up to boost his or her
task performance.
In conclusion, cultural Intelligence Scale is of significance to Speech-Language Pathology
(SLP). For instance, an individual with high cultural intelligence may be able to bridge and divide
knowledge gaps, which will educate one’s peers about cultural diversity. Additionally, high
cultural intelligence enables an individual to interact smoothly in a diverse culture by establishing
smooth and steady interpersonal relations and processes in a multicultural setting. Furthermore,
Culturally Intelligent individuals have the potential to accelerate creativity and innovation due to
the ability of an individual employing multiple multicultural views and integrate diverse resources
in a culturally diverse environment. Such mentioned capabilities are beyond an individual being
mature emotionally, intellectually, or having general skills and expertise.
Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., Koh, C. K. S., Ng, K. Y., Templer, K. J., Tay, C., & Chandrasekar, N. A.
(2007). Cultural intelligence: Its measurement and effects on cultural judgment and
decision making, cultural adaptation, and task performance. Management and
Organization Review, 3: 335–371.
Rockstuhl, T., Seiler, S., Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., & Annen, H. (2011). Beyond general
intelligence (IQ) and emotional intelligence (EQ): The role of cultural intelligence (CQ)
on cross?border leadership effectiveness in a globalized world. Journal of Social
Issues, 67(4), 825-840.
Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (2000). Select on intelligence. Handbook of principles of
organizational behavior, 3-14.

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