Liberty Biblical Preaching Development & Delivery of Expository Messages Discussion I ATTACHED 4 CHOSEN CHAPTERS IN A WORD DOCUMENT IN BOLD AND HIGHLIGHTED

Liberty Biblical Preaching Development & Delivery of Expository Messages Discussion I ATTACHED 4 CHOSEN CHAPTERS IN A WORD DOCUMENT IN BOLD AND HIGHLIGHTED BELOW RUBRIC ATTACHED AS WELL (CHAPTERS 15,17,30,31)

Week Four Discussion Board Thread Instructions
$12 Summaries
With each word being worth 10 cents, write four $12 summaries of the reading from any four of the following chapters in Everyday Bible Study:
15. Observe: How to Make Accurate Observations
16. How to Use Multiple Translations of the Bible
17. How to Ask Key Questions
28. Interpret: How to Find the Meaning of the Bible
29. Correlate: How to Connect Scripture to Other Scriptures
30. Correlate: How to See Jesus in the Bible
31. Apply: How to Live Out What You Learn
32. How to Study the Old Testament Genres, Part 1: Law
33. How to Study the Old Testament Genres, Part 2: Narrative
34. How to Study the Old Testament Genres, Part 3: Wisdom and Poetry
35. How to Study the Old Testament Genres, Part 4: Prophetic Literature
This means that in this assignment you are developing four summaries of 120 words each (one for each of the four chapters you selected). You should aim to create four summaries where each summary is between 100-120 words. Each of your summaries should not exceed the 120-word or $12 limit.

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Example of $12 summary:
Week Five: A $12 Summary Example

Chapter 2: Human Condition (120 words)

Sin is the disease that has infected every human being. The proper theological term for this is “original sin.” The viciousness of original sin has altered our nature that it is “so deeply curved in upon itself” (Grunewald, p. 21). The implications of this for our human condition is that “sin is not simply something we choose to do or not do; sin is our nature. We aren’t sinners because we sin. We sin because we are sinners” (Grunewald, p.26). The answer to our human condition is found in the Gospel, or more correctly, the person of the Gospel. Rather than being plagued by a “me first” spirit, Jesus selflessly gives himself to rescue those under the curse of sin.

We use the skill of observation every day. Like breathing, it is something we instinctively do
without really giving it a second thought. For example, imagine you’re shopping at the grocery
store for salad dressing. Looking for your favorite brand of honey mustard dressing, you sadly
observe that it’s gone. You scan the shelf to see if they may have moved it but confirm that it’s
out of stock. You notice a lite version of the dressing, pick it up, and read the ingredients.
Unfortunately, this version contains a natural sweetener that you’re trying to avoid, so you put it
back on the shelf. You observe that at least three other companies make a honey mustard salad
dressing. As you compare the bottles, you remember eating one of the dressings at a local
restaurant. You grab a bottle of the brand you remember and place it in your cart.
Did you notice how frequently observation factored into this brief, commonplace event? There
are numerous other ways that observation is a part of our daily life. You observe how you are
feeling when you wake in the morning and notice any weariness or discomfort throughout the
day. You observe that your gas tank is almost empty and scan the horizon for a cheap and
convenient gas station. You park your car in a large lot and look for visual markers to help you
easily find it when you return. The examples are almost endless. Keen observation is one of the
most advantageous skills in the study of the Bible. It is not something difficult to do. Those who
make perceptive observations as they read the Bible have learned to take the skill they use in
everyday life and apply it for a noble purpose.
Why We Fail to Observe the Text
Unfortunately, the skill of observation is one that we seldom think about when it comes to
studying the Scriptures. There are a handful of reasons for this neglect of the power of
observation in Bible study.
Lack of Acquaintance with the Bible
For some Christians, their lack of observation in Bible study is because of their lack of regular,
close acquaintance with the Bible. They have often read the Bible and heard it preached. This has
translated into a mentality of “assumed acquaintance.” Thus it becomes easy for one to skim a
passage of Scripture—assuming he is already familiar with it—rather than truly reading it
closely. Familiarity with Bible passages can be dangerous because it may lead you to miss
crucial details for understanding the text.
A Dependence on Supporting Material
The market for Bible devotionals continues to be strong. Frequently, with New Year’s
resolutions comes the purchase of a new devotional for a new year. Devotional books certainly
have value in spiritual formation. However, a problem with resources like these is the
dependence they can create. Believers can be tempted to read a verse of Scripture simply as the
springboard to the content of the devotional. As a result, focus on the biblical text is lost. We
may even subconsciously consider it unnecessary to read the Bible since the devotional will
explain all we need to know. No work of observation or thinking necessary. This type of spoonfeeding has resulted in Christians who are dependent on someone else to study the Scriptures for
them. The Bible becomes secondary, and of lesser value, to the devotional book. There comes a
time when every Christian ought to be able to “feed” himself without the need for someone else
to tell him what the Bible says, what it means, and how it applies to life. Learning to make good
observations means I will not be dependent on someone else to make them for me.
A Distracting Environment
Our world is full of things that clamor for our attention. Our desks, kitchen tables, or favorite
reading chairs always seem to be surrounded by things that distract our attention. The more
potential there is for distraction, the less potential there is for the purposeful reading and
insightful observation that is necessary for good Bible study. We ought to come to a time of
Bible reading with the assumption that there is nothing that demands our attention more than the
words of the living God. Learning to make good observations of Scripture begins by placing
yourself in an environment that is as free from distraction as possible.
The Purpose of Observation
The purpose of observation is to identify the significant information in a passage. This
information will be collected and evaluated in order to formulate a suitable analysis of the text of
Scripture. When we make observations, we are looking for elements of structure, relationships,
parts of speech, and grammar. We are also asking basic investigative questions in order to
answer the who, what, where, when, why, and how of a passage. As we make and collect these
observations, they will become the material we use to identify how we should properly think
through the passage so that we properly interpret the text.
How to Make Better Observations
There are several ways we can become better at seeing what we read so that we do not miss
crucial information in the text of Scripture.
Use a Bible That You Can Understand
Sometimes we fail to make quality observations because we are using a Bible that is too difficult
for us to read and understand. Perhaps it was given to us, or maybe it is the same version our
friends are using. Regardless, if we struggle to comprehend what we’re reading, it will be
difficult to make any significant observations. For serious Bible study, it’s good to use a formal
equivalence translation; however, it should be a version that you are able to understand.
Consult Other Translations
Using a formal equivalence translation doesn’t mean that other translations are of little value.
Consulting other formal and functional equivalence translations allows for helpful comparison
on a passage. By comparing translations, we can observe how they are both similar and different
in their choice of words, phrases, and structural elements. This enables us to see which parts of
the passage need to be the subject of more in-depth study.
Engage the Passage as You Read
One can be guilty of reading a passage of Scripture without really reading it. The words may run
through our heads without actually coming into contact with our minds. The fact that we are
reading the words of God should encourage us to read in a manner that allows us to process
them. To engage a passage of Scripture, we ought to take intentional steps that foster careful
observation. This may require reading slower, reading aloud, or reading portions of the text
multiple times. Such meaningful engagement will increase your understanding and enjoyment of
God’s Word.
Take Notes as You Read
One of the best ways to read Scripture with intentionality is to grab a pen and take notes. As you
make your way through the text, mark it up. Underline, circle, and highlight. Write down
questions and observations. Include references to related passages of Scripture. When we bring a
pen to our study of God’s Word, we declare our intent to be active observers, examining the text
for every important detail.
Key Observation Questions
In high school, you may have learned the importance of asking six questions to understand or
present a story: Who? What? Where? When? Why? and How? Each of these six questions makes
a great starting point for noticing the significant facts in a biblical text.
Asking “who” helps us look for the key people in a passage. These people can be either
explicitly listed or implied. In order to find the “who” of the passage, look for both proper names
and pronouns. Identifying people in the narrative books of the Bible can be fairly easy. But there
are two people who can be easy to forget as you read: the author and the original audience. When
possible, you should always seek to identify who wrote the book and to whom he was writing.
Knowing this will help you better understand the purpose of the passage.
When you ask the “what” question, you are seeking to understand what is taking place in a
passage of Scripture. If it’s a narrative or story, you are looking for the action of the passage. If
it’s a letter, you are identifying the content. When you ask the “what” question, you are looking
for the substance of the passage. Other examples of the “what” that may be found in a text
include a parable, an Old Testament quotation, or a series of commands.
The “where” of a passage is about location. Answering this question will help you identify the
geographical setting of a passage. The “where” of a biblical text can be easy to overlook, but to
do so is to minimize the important role that location can play in aiding our understanding. As
with the “who” question, there are two answers to the “where” question that are easily forgotten
by diligent Bible students. These include where the author wrote the book and where his
audience was. These are crucial components to understanding the letters of the New Testament.
Asking “when” of a text of Scripture enables you to identify elements of time. To answer the
“when” question, you are looking for temporal words that reveal the time of day, day of the
week, month, year, or perhaps a particular feast or festival. Identifying the “when” may help you
understand the significance of one event in a series of events.
The “why” question can aid in both observation and interpretation. Asking “why” as a part of
observation helps you to identify explicit statements that reveal “why” something was said, done,
or written. In other words, we are looking for answers to the “why” question that are clearly
stated in the text.
For example, in Jude v. 3, the “why” of this brief letter is easy to identify. Jude wrote, “Dear
friends, although I was eager to write you about the salvation we share, I found it necessary to
write, appealing to you to contend for the faith that was delivered to the saints once for all.” The
“why” of Jude’s letter is front-loaded. Why was he writing? To exhort the recipients of his letter
“to contend for the faith.” Everything in the letter must be understood in relation to Jude’s
explanation of why he was writing to them.
This is true for almost all the letters of the New Testament. If you can identify the “why” in the
opening verses (observation), you are on a path to correctly understanding the “why” of the
contents of the letter (interpretation). Thus looking for clearly communicated answers to “why”
questions is a crucial part of good Bible study.
“How” can be one of the most difficult questions to answer. This is because “how” questions
often relate more to interpretation than observation. One way to answer the “how” question is to
look either to the logical thought development in the passage or the structure of the passage.
Another way to consider the “how” question is to look for answers to the questions, “In what
way?” or “By what means?”
For example, by what means did Christ perform his healing miracles? Did he heal by touching?
Did he heal by speaking? Or was it a combination of both? In what way did King Solomon do
evil in the Lord’s sight according to 1 Kings 11? Each of these questions enables you to answer
the “how” of a passage. Again, as with the “why” question, when asking “how,” you want to
identify what is clearly communicated in the passage rather than making assumptions based on
the passage.
Answering the Key Questions
Let’s examine a passage together and see if we can answer the who, what, where, when, why,
and how of the text. Below are the first five verses from the book of Galatians. Read these verses
several times and see if you can answer the key questions for this passage.
Galatians 1:1–5 (CSB)
Paul, an apostle—not from men or by man, but by Jesus Christ and God the Father who raised
him from the dead—and all the brothers who are with me:
To the churches of Galatia.
Grace to you and peace from God the Father and our Lord Jesus Christ, who gave himself for our
sins to rescue us from this present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father. To him
be the glory forever and ever. Amen.
How did you do answering the key questions? Let’s look at them together and see if you
identified some of these elements. Keep in mind there are more observations that can be made
over these five verses, but this brief exercise should get you thinking about how these key
questions will help you meaningfully study a passage of Scripture.
How many answers did you have to the “who” question? You should have noted “Paul,” “the
brothers who are with me,” “the churches of Galatia,” “Jesus Christ,” and “God the Father.”
Obviously, Paul is the author of the letter, and the churches of Galatia are his audience. Each of
these is a character or set of characters you will need to know more about to understand the
The first “what” answer is easy to spot. What is Paul? According to v. 1, he’s “an apostle.” There
is another “what” at the end of v. 1 that tells us “what” God the Father did: he “raised [Jesus
Christ] from the dead.” We can also identify “what” Paul wrote as a greeting to the Galatian
believers: “Grace to you and peace.” “What” did “our Lord Jesus Christ” do? Paul wrote that he
“gave himself for our sins.” Finally, v. 5 tells us “what” praise Paul directed to God: “glory
forever and ever.”
The obvious “where” in this passage is Galatia, since Paul addressed his letter to the churches
there. However, there is another “where” that is not stated in these verses. Where was Paul when
he wrote the letter? Remember two of the “where” questions to ask of a New Testament deal
with the location of the recipients of the letter and the location of the author.
When did Paul write his letter to the Galatians? Asking this question can help us determine when
it was written during Paul’s life, as well as when it was written during the growth of the early
church. Considering when it was written during Paul’s life means placing it in context of his
missionary journeys and the events of his life. Considering when it was written during the
expansion of the early church means placing it in the time frame recorded in the book of Acts.
While neither of these questions can be answered from this passage, you will want to explore
them at a later time in your study. There is one additional “when” that is easy to miss in these
verses: “this present evil age” (“present” and “age” are both temporal terms).
These five verses do not spell out the “why” of the book of Galatians. In other words, we cannot
determine here the reason Paul wrote his letter to the Galatian believers. We would have to read
further to identify that. However, there is an answer to a “why” question in our passage.
“According to the will of our God and Father” tells us why Jesus “gave himself for our sins to
rescue us from this present evil age.” It can be easy to miss this. But if you read at a pace that
allows you to interact with the text, you will see how these questions can help you observe a
passage more clearly.
As explained above, when we ask the “how” question, we are asking by what means or in what
way. We do not have to read far into this passage to put this key question to use. By what means
did Paul become an apostle? Paul was an apostle “not from men or by man, but by Jesus Christ
and God the Father.”
When asking these key questions, there is the potential for “overlap.” In other words, words and
phrases in the passage might answer more than one question. For example, one of our answers to
the “what” question above told us what Jesus Christ did: he “gave himself for our sins.” But we
could also say that this phrase answers the “how” question, describing in what way or by what
means we have been rescued “from this present evil age.”
Did you notice how much we were able to observe merely by asking these key questions of
Paul’s introduction to the letter? If you have studied Galatians before, you know that the letter
has much to say about the freedom believers have because of the work of Jesus Christ on the
cross. This theme is such an integral part of Paul’s letter that it even seeps into the way he
greeted the Galatian believers. Paul used the customary introduction of his letter to set up what
he would say to the Galatians about their freedom based on the completed work of Christ. We
can be tempted to skip or skim letter introductions. Consequently, we miss how the introduction
can contribute to and frame the rest of the letter. [CartwrightHulshof (2019). (p. 102). Everyday
Bible Study, Second Edition. Retrieved from]
The Bible is not a book that presents a collection of heroes and role models to pattern our life
after. The Bible is also not a collection of rules and instructions designed as a how-to manual for
life. Certainly, the Bible does contain laws, rules, and decrees that we would do well to heed.
They provide a framework for avoiding some of the self-inflicted suffering that we go through.
However, the thread that connects the Old and New Testament together is God’s plan of
redemption through the person and work of Jesus Christ. When we take this approach toward
Scripture, we will find that his story can be correlated to the various biblical stories. Indeed, it is
the story of Jesus and God’s plan of redemption that is the framework for the stories in the
Unfortunately, this method of correlating Scripture is not often seen in personal Bible study or in
churches around the country. Too frequently, the focus is on self-improvement. How can the
stories and instructions in the Bible make my life better? This self-help approach to Scripture
addresses only our temporal or present needs. It can never speak to our greatest need. The
greatest need that we have is a solution for our fallen spiritual condition. The answer to this need
cannot be found within us. Rather, the answer must come from outside of us. The answer is
found in the birth, life, death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus Christ. It is the full life of
Christ that answers the greatest need of each and every person.
How can you study the Bible and look for Christ in the Scriptures? There are four features of the
biblical text that, when properly observed, will lead the student of God’s Word to the Son of
Look for Stories That Are a Reflection of the Grand Narrative of Redemption
All the little stories in the Bible are ultimately narrating one grand story. This grand story is
God’s plan to rescue, ransom, and redeem his children. In other words, all the smaller stories of
the Bible are sketching out the big-picture story of the Bible. When we approach Scripture with
this mind-set, we begin to look for ways that the redemptive acts of God in the Old Testament
point forward to the redemptive act of Christ in the New Testament.
Take, for example, the story of the Amalekites and their attack on the Israelites in Exod 17:8–16.
In this story, Moses sent Joshua out to battle these enemies of Israel. When Joshua departed,
Moses ascended a hilltop with the staff of God. Aaron and Hur accompanied Moses. When
Moses held up his hand, Israel prevailed. But when Moses dropped his hand, the Amalekites
prevailed. Seeing this, Aaron and Hur found a rock that Moses could sit on. They also supported
Moses’s hands so they would remain steady until the battle was won.
A self-help understanding of this passage leads to the conclusion that each of us should find an
Aaron and a Hur. In other words, we should identify two people w…
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