American George Bellows Blue Morning 1909 Historical Analysis Paper Phase 2: Visual-historical analysis, Format for Paper Five single-spaced pages, one-in

American George Bellows Blue Morning 1909 Historical Analysis Paper Phase 2: Visual-historical analysis,

Format for Paper Five single-spaced pages, one-inch margins, 12-point font. Type your name at the top of the first page, followed by the title of the paper beneath it (no separate title page). Sources Three scholarly sources, peer-reviewed, of the caliber of the Girgsby essay on Manet’s Olympia. Citations Chicago Manual of Style, bibliography and notes style. If your sources do not correspond to the examples, choose the closest entry and do your best to conform: Submission To BB, uploaded as a Word document (no PDFs, Pages docs, etc.) to an Assignment called “Paper 2.” Late Papers Late papers will be penalized by a full letter grade per day late, starting immediately. In this phase you will combine your visual analysis with historical research to understand the work in relation to its original social context. Politics, gender, race, religion, etc., will figure into this analysis in various ways. The historical aspects of the paper must rely on three scholarly, peer-reviewed sources in the form of books, book chapters, and articles from the Library catalogue and the art-history databases presented in class. Use the scholarly article you assessed together in class, by Grigsby, to gauge the kind of writing and analysis you should look for in these readings. After you conduct your research and digest its implications, revisit the thesis of your visual analysis. Have you changed your mind about what the artist/work is attempting to communicate? This is a moment for you to test your cultural assumptions. Your new thesis should indicate whether or not, and to what degree, your historical research bears out your initial assertions about your work. Do you stand by your original conclusions or have you changed your mind? Either way, explain why. Do not take the easy way out by tacking your historical analysis onto the visual analysis of the first paper. Rather, integrate the two to demonstrate your revised thesis, and revise both your introduction and your paragraph content – this is the evidence that supports your thesis – to reflect this new way of thinking about the work

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combine with visual analysis paper to write a historical analysis paper

In a word, we need to write a historical analysis paper with research based on the visual analysis paper we wrote before, which needs some evidence to prove it.

and here is the sample paper, and my visual analysis paper Visual-Historical Analysis:
Susan Hauptman’s Copper Self-Portrait With Dog, 2001
The elusive complexity of identity makes self-exploration a longstanding process that has
enthralled great minds for generations. Identity has been explored through a variety of manners
and mediums, one of which is art. Countless artists have used their craft to explore and question
their own identities. One such artist, known for realistic, nearly photographic self-portraits was
Susan Hauptman. Hauptman, a former New York based artist, worked on paper with charcoal
and pastel to render unflinchingly detailed self-portraits. These portraits presented Hauptman
accurately, with androgynes features and the natural marks of age on her face. However, the
Susan Hauptman depicted in her works sported a variety of hyper-feminine clothing or
‘identities.’ Like many artists, Hauptman used her craft to both display and explore her own
identity and its possible fluidity. One work by Hauptman, Copper Self-Portrait With Dog, hangs
in the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C. This work, completed in 2001, depicts
Hauptman in a manner consistent with her other portraits, that is, with androgynous features: a
bald head and no makeup. In the work she wears feminine attire including a frilly blouse and
skirt, flats, and a church hat. The assertion made in the previous visual analysis, that Hauptman’s
work depicted the self as flawed, was not incorrect but rather incomplete. Here I will argue,
based on my visual observations and my research, that Copper Self-Portrait With Dog
demonstrates the artist’s self as imperfect. Yet Hauptman pushes against concepts of
binary/female gender norms to demonstrate a journey of self-revelation that resonates with the
historical moment. This journey is expressed both through visual realism, such as with the
portrait-like facial features, and experimentation that departs from it.
The state of the art scene in New York at the time of the work’s creation – the 2000s –
illuminates aspects of gendered identity exploration that are relevant to Hauptman’s Copper SelfPortrait With Dog: this investigation allows us to understand the values and principles that are
reflected in the artist’s work, for art of this time often reflected the realities of the world. These
realities included economic downfall, effects of the AIDS epidemic, and culture wars. In reaction
to these and other struggles, art was used as a means of protest. Art often “reflected the realities
of the day, good and bad, with a new kind of content: politically informed, activist in spirit, often
self-consciously ethnic in reference.”1 Some of these values may be seen in Copper Self-Portrait
With Dog. In the work, the question of binary gender expression through a juxtaposition of
feminine elements against an androgynous physical appearance may be described as ‘politically
informed’ and ‘activist in spirit.’ Though Hauptman’s work is more in reference to her own selfrevelation than a social statement, it remains ‘activist in nature.’ Especially during this time,
gender binaries were expected to be rigidly followed. According to the politics of the time,
women looked a certain way and men looked a certain way. There was no room for
interpretation. By presenting a different form of femininity Hauptman consequently questioned
the binary nature of gender and demonstrated its fluidity. Lastly, the concept of postmodernism
emerged in the late-20th-century. This postmodernist style seems to be present in much of
Hauptman’s work, including Copper Self-Portrait With Dog. For context, postmodernism is
Cotter, Holland. “Decade in Art: Fairs, Ethnicity, Looting and Technology.” The New York Times, The
New York Times, 31 Dec. 2009,
defined as an artistic style, “that demonstrates a distrust of major theories or ideologies and a
problematical relationship with any notion of art.” This style was noted in Hauptman’s works
largely through the dramatic shift in costumes Hauptman depicted herself in, according to the
San Diego Union Tribune2. For example, in Copper Self-Portrait With Dog she wore ruffled and
slightly ill-fitting women’s dress clothes while in another work, L’après-midi d’un faune selfportrait, she sports a ballet tutu. The ‘distrust of major theories’ she demonstrated was, as
expressed earlier, the assumed rigid nature of gender, identity, and feminine expressions of
The background and color palette of Copper Self-Portrait With Dog demonstrates
Hauptman’s use of art for self-exploration and reflection, while also reflecting the general tone
of the work and subject matter. Hauptman’s work lacks background scenery or color. Instead, the
artist manipulates shading techniques to create the illusion of a background or a kind of spotlight.
This allusive quality of her works was common, even in still lifes. In reference to one of
Hauptman’s still lifes one book states, “the illusionistic textures in the drawing are a result of a
mastery handling of values. Although Hauptman’s drawing is representational, it is highly
subjective; an atmosphere of mystery pervades the work,” according to Drawing a
Contemporary Approach3. In, Copper Self-Portrait With Dog, the shadows are darkest around
the bottom and edges of the work; creating a kind of spotlight around the primary figure. As
Hauptman used her works for her own self reflections on her womanhood and identity, a
background would only distract. Standing by the visual analysis, background colors or scenery
could be used by viewers to identify and ultimately label the figure, further explaining their
purposeful exclusion by Hauptman. Additionally, as a self-portrait artist Hauptman spent years
closely studying herself in the mirror. When examining oneself in the mirror your face is clear
and sharp while the surroundings are left blurry and secondary. This is demonstrated through
Hauptman’s work. The artist’s face is extremely detailed while the background is left as
secondary. Further, the color palate of, Copper Self-Portrait With Dog, is primarily white and
grey. These somber colors reflect the tone of the subject matter and (as previously stated) the
realities of the time. Societies strict expectation of women to appear a certain way is not positive,
so to depict it with bright colors would be unrepresentative of reality. Further, Hauptman is
intended to appear uncomfortable and sombered by the feminine clothing that does not fit with
her own expression of womanhood. Lastly, the background and shading is illogical as no one
light source is clear. In a description of a similar work, Avampato Online Gallery4 wrote, “at
first, the shadows, highlights and textures seem appropriate, but there is actually no single light
source, which gives the work a spellbinding and mysterious quality.” This same technique is
used in Copper Self-Portrait With Dog. Combined with other disjointed and illogical elements,
the work gives off a mysterious and even chaotic quality. This disjointed quality contrasts the
photo realism Hauptman uses to depict her face and further demonstrates the elusiveness and
arbitrary nature of feminine identity/expectations.
San Diego Union Tribune. “Susan Hauptman Sees Her Many Selves.” Lux Art Institute, 13 Dec. 2009,
Sale, Teel, and Claudia Betti. Cengage Advantage Books: Drawing: A Contemporary Approach. sixth
ed., Cengage Learning, 2010.
“Artist Profile .” Avampato Online Gallery, Sunrise Collectors Club,
The only other figure in Copper Self-Portrait With Dog is the dog, which after research
seems to have been used by Hauptman for a myriad of purposes. The dog is used as another
gender identifier, another identity for Hauptman to explore, and to further demonstrate the self as
imperfect. The previous analysis, that the dog is overly idealistic to contrast with Hauptman’s
realistic depiction, stands. The dog is a small, white, fluffy puppy. It seems perfect, which
actually causes it to fall into the background. With the in-depth, imperfect, and interesting
depiction of Hauptman’s self the dog feels inconsequential. It appears to be a flat character
intended to highlight the imperfections in Hauptman’s portrayal. The dog is placed separate from
the figure. However, this separate depiction has a different purpose than previously
hypothesized. Originally, the visual analysis suggested the dog’s separate depiction was intended
to prevent the audience from labeling Hauptman. Research has discovered that this separation
further demonstrates the fluidity of identity and femininity. A small, puffy, perfect, dog has long
been connected to wealthy and traditionally feminine women (like Beverly Hills women).
Images of wealthy and conventionally attractive women strolling with fluffy little puppies have
been present in photography, art, and film for generations. So, the dog in Copper Self-Portrait
With Dog is likely used by Hauptman as another hyper-feminine element to juxtaposed against
her androgynous features as a way to further question gender binaries. Finally, Hauptman often
depicted herself as ‘trying on’ different identities in her work. From a ballerina to a clown to a
fancy women with a little dog. The dog is used to demonstrate yet another identity but is kept
separate to remind the audience that this is not Hauptman’s self but merely a costume. The
clothes Hauptman depicts herself in serve a similar purpose.
Hauptman uses her clothes to explore her own fluidity identity and to question
expectations of femininity. Hauptman depicts herself in ‘nice’ or formal clothing; ruffles, a skirt,
and a flowery hat. However, the outfit lacks cohesion and sits ill-fitting and awkward on the
subject. As described by Allison Malafronte, “Repeated themes in many self-portraits Hauptman
created were her identity as a women- specifically the juxtaposition of how she saw herself and
her gender verses what society saw and expected.”5 Hauptman’s androgynous features represent
how the artist saw herself as a women while the frilly clothes and fluffy dog represent what
society expected from her. The two contrast so starkly to demonstrate that this expectation is ill
fitting and unimportant. Further, the clothes and dog remain detached to distinguish between the
two; her gender identity/express versus society’s expectation. Hauptman’s depiction of herself
could be likened to Barbie. Barbie is one women’s whose features do not change. However, give
her a stethoscope and she is a doctor. Place a veil on her head and she is a bride. The accessories
she is depicted with morph her identity and how she is perceived by the audience while her
features remain the stagnant. Perhaps Hauptman is aware of this similarity and comments on
society’s expectation of women to be like dolls; pretty, nice, quiet, and neatly/easily molded.
Overall, the clothes depicted in Copper Self-Portrait With Dog stand as a signifier of femininity
(as expected by society), and are contrasted again Hauptman’s androgynous and imperfect
features in order to question gender binaries and expectations.
Hauptman’s questions of gender identity and expressions in Copper Self-Portrait With
Dog bring to mind Judith Butler’s theory of gender performativity. This theory is evoked by
Malafronte, Allison. “Susan Hauptman: Delicacy and Daring.” Newington-Cropsey Cultural Studies
Center, American Arts Quarterly, 2016,
Hauptman’s work, whether purposefully or by coincidence. In Performative Acts and Gender
Constitution: An Essay In Phenomenology and Feminist Theory, Butler demonstrates her theory
of gender performativity explaining that, “gender is an act which has been rehearsed, much as a
script survives the particular actors who make use of it, but which requires individual actors in
order to be actualized and reproduced as reality once again.”6 Basically, Butler suggests that sex
and gender are separate and have no biological connection. Sex is the scientific anatomy people
are born with while gender is the idea of what it means to be a girl or boy (which Butler argues is
a social construct). The anatomy a person is born with does not determine how a person presents.
For example, dressing or moving ‘like a man’ is not related to a person’s sex but rather the
socially constructed idea of what it means to live as a man. By performing our prescribed gender
we are cementing its societal definition. If we were to transcend gender, mix gendered clothing
or expressions, the concept of gender would cease to exist.
Research has uncovered no explicit confirmation that Hauptman’s work has any
inspiration from or connection to Butler’s theory. Nonetheless, Butler’s theory remains reflected
through Hauptman’s work and may assist us in deconstructing the work Copper Self-Portrait
With Dog. Hauptman uses culturally accepted identifiers of feminine gender in this work (and
others). This includes her skirt, small dog, blouse, and feminine hat. Hauptman juxtaposes these
gendered items against her androgynous features. In this way Hauptman is challenging and
transcending gender expectations. According to Christina Nadeau, “These cultural signifiers of
femininity are made to contend with her own idiosyncratic self-representation in their
communication of gendered identity.” 7 In this way Hauptman demonstrates her gender identity
as incompatible with the society’s expectation. By mixing these gender signifiers, demonstrating
the arbitrary nature of gender norms, Hauptman transcends gender in her work’s and evokes
Butler’s theory.
In Copper Self-Portrait With Dog, Susan Hauptman’s self-exploration and question of
gender identity as well as her depiction of the self as imperfect are demonstrated largely through
the realism used in the depiction of her facial features. The most detailed aspect of Copper SelfPortrait With Dog is the artist’s face. Hauptman spent years closely examining her face and
detailing it unflinchingly on the canvas. While most artist’s depicted themselves more favorable
than reality, Hauptman seems to do the opposite in Copper Self-Portrait With Dog, where deep
lines are present especially around Hauptman’s mouth and eyes. Hauptman’s facial features are
slightly asymmetrical with drooping eyelids eyes that sink back. The previous visual analysis
was correct in its assertion that Hauptman depicts the self as imperfect. However, the analysis
was off in asserting that this was completely intentional and for the purpose of some social
statement. Hauptman demonstrates the self, or rather herself, as imperfect not in order to make a
statement. Rather, she partakes in self exploration in order to render her exact self on the paper
which happens to be (like all people) imperfect. Further, Hauptman’s face depicts her true-self,
which she then juxtaposes against feminine clothing and identities expected of her by society.
Butler, Judith. “Performative Acts and Gender Constitution An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist
Theory.” Theatre Journal, vol. 40, no. 4, American Theatre Association., Dec. 1988, pp. 519–31.
Nadeau, Christina. “HAND-IN-GLOVE Representations of the Glove as Fetish Object.” A SPACE for
DIALOGUE, Dartmouth College, 2010,
This is likely another reason for Hauptman’s precision. Though Hauptman has been noted as
possessing a cheerful disposition, her facial expression in Copper Self-Portrait With Dog is grave
and unflinching. This somber expression is consistent throughout her various portraits. The
previous analysis suspected this portrayal signified a purely physical reflection by Hauptman;
meaning the expression was inconsequential. However, through further research Hauptman’s
facial expression seems more purposeful than previously surmised. Though this purpose remains
disputed among scholars. Some argue the figure’s face is expressionless to allow for a fluid
identity. Some say she presents a somber face to express her discomfort in the awkward and
overtly-feminine attire. Others suggest the facial expression indicates that the figure harbors
some secret or alternative motive. Scholars have also argued that her expression is stoic, proving
she is stronger than these humiliating expectations of her gender expression. It seems that
Hauptman’s intention in depicting a somber and neutral expression in Copper Self-Portrait With
Dog and other works was for all and none of these reasons. By presenting a neutral face
Hauptman is able to embody all of these depictions or meanings audiences bring to the work.
In conclusion, through further research the previous visual analysis was found to be not
incorrect, but incomplete. Though still speculative, the thesis of this analysis has expanded and
strengthened. While in Copper Self-Portrait With Dog, Susan Hauptman demonstrates the self as
imperfect, her rebellion pushes against concepts of binary gender and feminine beauty and her
realism clearly demonstrates her own journey of self-revelation. Hauptman’s juxtaposition of
feminine clothing against her own androgynous features evokes ideas from Judith Butler’s
gender theory and questions gender roles and binaries. Scholarly writing on Copper Self-Portrait
With Dog remains unavailable and writing on the artist remains scarce. More writing is expected
to emerge as Hauptman’s work ages. Though, unfortunately, Hauptman passed away in 2015,
her work will continue to influence society and the nation. Questions of gender identity depicted
through Copper Self-Portrait With Dog (2001) and other works by Hauptman remain extremely
relevant; indicating that the artist was ahead of her time. Overall, Copper Self-Portrait With Dog,
by Susan Hauptman stands as a key example how categories of identity may be evoked,
explored, and questioned through the everlasting medium of artistic expression.
“Artist Profile.” Avampato Online Gallery, Sunrise Collectors Club,
Butler, Judith. “Performative Acts and Gender Constitution An Essay in Phenomenology and
Feminist Theory.” Theatre Journal, vol. 40, no. 4, American Theatre Association., Dec. 1988,
pp. 519–31.
Cotter, Holland. “Decade in Art: Fairs, Ethnicity, Looting and Technology.” The New York
Times, The New York Times, 31 Dec. 2009,
Malafronte, Allison. “Susan Hauptman: Delicacy and Daring.” Newington-Cropsey Cultural
Studies Center, American Arts Quarterly, 2016,
Nadeau, Christina. “HAND-IN-GLOVE Representations of the Glove as Fetish Object.” A
SPACE for DIALOGUE, Dartmouth College, 2010,
Sale, Teel, and Claudia Betti. Cengage Advantage Books: Drawing: A Contemporary Approach.
sixth ed., Cengage Learning, 2010.
San Diego Union Tribune. “Susan Hauptman Sees Her Many Selves.” Lux Art Institute, 13 Dec.
Visual Analysis of a Painting
Blue Morning by George Bellows is an oil-on-canvas painting made in 1909. This artwork is
displayed in the Chester Dale Collection in the National Gallery of Art. The painting depicts
workers in a construction project with the background being high rise city buildings. The
workers in the foreground are involved in various construction activities as evidenced by smoke,
the use of a hammer, and a worker who stands next to a crane. In B…
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