New York University Week 1 Difference Between Population and Sample Discussion IMPORTANT NOTE REGARDING WORD LIMIT REQUIREMENTS: Please note that each and

New York University Week 1 Difference Between Population and Sample Discussion IMPORTANT NOTE REGARDING WORD LIMIT REQUIREMENTS:

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Differentiate between a population and a sample, and a parameter and a statistic. In your explanation, apply the concepts of descriptive and inferential statistics. Provide specific examples to illustrate each. Discuss why the ability to differentiate these terms is critically important when interpreting research findings related to public health.


PLEASE add the links/sites below to the reference list if you use any of these readings and make sure everything is in proper APA format.…

Read Chapters 1-3 in Using and Interpreting Statistics: A Practical Text for the Behavioral, Social, and Health Sciences.


For assistance with using Excel software, use the “Excel Training: Add and Format Tables” video library located on the Microsoft website.


For assistance with using Excel software, use the “Excel Training: Add and Format Charts” video library located on the Microsoft website.


For assistance with using Excel software, use the “Excel Training: Excel for Mac Tips” video library located on the Microsoft website.


View “The Human Insights Missing From Big Data,” by Wang (2016), located on the TED website


View “Data Entry” from the SPSS Tutorials media.


View the following terms in The Visual Learner: Statistics media.

Continuous Data
Discrete Data
Interval Level
Ordinal Data
Nominal Data


For assistance with using the IBM SPSS software, use the IBM SPSS Statistics Base 24, located on the IBM website.


Read “Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Data in Mixed Methods Research – Challenges and Benefits,” by Almalki, from Journal of Education and Learning (2016).


Read “Pathways to Malaria Persistence in Remote Central Vietnam: A Mixed Method Study of Health Care and the Community,” by Morrow, Nguyen, Curuana, Biggs, Doan, and Nong, from BMC Public Health (2009).


Read “10 Best Resources on…Mixed Methods Research in Health Systems,” by Ozawa and Pongpirul, from Health Policy Plan (2014).


Read “A General Inductive Approach for Analyzing Qualitative Evaluation Data,” by Thomas, from American Journal of Evaluation (2006).


Read “Guidance for Using Mixed Methods Design in Nursing Practice Research,” by Chiang-Hanisko, Newman, Dyess, Duangporn, and Liehr, from Applied Nursing Research (2016).


Read “Mapping the Developing Landscape of Mixed Methods Research,” by Creswell, from SAGE Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioral Research (2010).


MUST have at least three citations with the page numbers and three references in APA format and all questions clearly answered in paragraphs.(The List of References should not be older than 2016 and should not be included in the word count.)

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT presenting an explanation from the context of ethics and the readings for this class

To get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for this assignments 1) look at the word/page limits 2) review and follow APA rules 3) create subheadings to identify the key sections you are presenting and 4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors.

Power and Influence
in the Workplace
©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Power, Influence, and Politics at JP Morgan
JPMorgan Chase & Co.
suffered a $7 billion loss
due to the dysfunctional
use of power, influence,
and organizational politics
in the London operations
of its chief investment
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© Spencer Platt/Getty Images
The Meaning of Power
The capacity of a person,
team, or organization to
influence others
• Potential to change attitudes
and behavior (not actual
attempt to change)
• Based on target’s perception
that power-holder controls a
valuable resource
• Requires a minimum level of
trust by both parties
• Power involves unequal
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© Spencer Platt/Getty Images
Power and Dependence
Jump to Appendix 1 description
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Sources and Contingencies of Power
Jump to description
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Deference to Authority: Le Jeu de la Mort
French reality television
revealed how far people are
willing to submit to authority.
Only 16 of the 80 contestants
refused to administer the
strongest shocks when another
contestant gave the wrong
answers. Fortunately, the other
contestant was an actor who
didn’t actually receive the
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© Susana Gonzalez/Bloomberg/Getty Images
Sources of Power in Organization
1- Legitimate Power
Agreement that people in
specific positions can request
behaviors from others
Norm of reciprocity
• Obligation to reciprocate favors
Information control
• Right to distribute information
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© Susana Gonzalez/Bloomberg/Getty Images
Other Sources of Power
2- Reward power
• Control rewards valued by others, remove negative sanctions
3- Coercive power
• Ability to apply punishment
4- Expert Power
* Capacity to influence others by possessing knowledge
or skills that they value
5- Referent power
• Capacity to influence others through identification with and
respect for the power holder
• Associated with charisma
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Contingency of Power
* Nonsubstitutability
Power increases with
• Resource has few or no other sources
• Resource has few or no substitutes
Nonsubstitutability increases:
• By increasing control over the
• By differentiating the resource
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© CSP_szefei/Fotosearch/age fotostock RF
Other Contingencies of Power
• Interdependence with power holder
• How many are affected
• How quickly others are affected
• Known as holder of valued resource
• Social interaction, power symbols
• Freedom to exercise judgment
• Rules limit discretion
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© CSP_szefei/Fotosearch/age fotostock RF
Power Through Social Networks
Social networks
• People connected to each other through
forms of interdependence
Social capital
• Goodwill and resulting resources shared in
a social network
Networks offer three power resources
• Information (expert power)
• Visibility
• Referent power
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Social Network Ties
Strong ties
• Close-knit relationships
• Offer resources more quickly and plentifully,
but less unique
Weak ties
• Acquaintances
• Offer unique resources, but more slowly
Many ties
• Resources increase with number of ties
• Information technology helps, but still a limit
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Social Network Centrality
Person’s importance in a network
Three factors in centrality
1. Betweenness—connected between others
2. Degree centrality—number of connections
3. Closeness—stronger connections
Example: “A” has highest centrality due
to all three factors; “B” has lowest
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Influencing Others
Any behavior that attempts to alter another person’s
attitudes or behavior
Applies one or more power bases
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Types of Influence (1 of 3)
Silent authority
• Power-holder’s request or
mere presence influences
• Legitimate power (subtle)
• Vocal authority—reminding,
checking, bullying
• Legitimate or coercive
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© Wavebreak Media/age fotostock RF
Types of Influence (2 of 3)
Information control
• Withholding, filtering, restructuring information
Coalition formation
• Pooling members’ resources and power to influence others
Upward appeal
• Claiming higher authority support or showing evidence of that
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Types of Influence (3 of 3)
• Logical arguments, emotional appeals
• Effects of persuader, message, medium, audience
Impression management
• Actively shaping others’ perceptions or attitudes of us
• Self-presentation symbols and behavior
• Ingratiation—liking by, perceived similarity to, target person
• Exchange of resources for desired behavior
• Negotiation, reciprocity, social networks
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Consequences of Influence (1 of 2)
Oppose the behavior the influencer
Agree to behavior, motivated only by
external sources.
Identify with behavior, highly
motivated without external sources.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Consequences of Influence (2 of 2)
Jump to Appendix 2 description
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Contingencies of Influence
Soft tactics generally more acceptable than hard tactics
Appropriate influence tactic depends on:
• Influencer’s power base
• Organizational positions
• Personal, organizational, cultural values, and expectations
©McGraw-Hill Education.

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