New York University Week 1 Difference Between Population and Sample Discussion IMPORTANT NOTE REGARDING WORD LIMIT REQUIREMENTS:
Please note that each and every assignment has its own word limit.
Differentiate between a population and a sample, and a parameter and a statistic. In your explanation, apply the concepts of descriptive and inferential statistics. Provide specific examples to illustrate each. Discuss why the ability to differentiate these terms is critically important when interpreting research findings related to public health.
PLEASE ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS IN PARAGRAPHS AND MAKE IT COHESIVE AND TRY TO INCORPORATE THE READINGS BELOW
PLEASE add the links/sites below to the reference list if you use any of these readings and make sure everything is in proper APA format.
Read Chapters 1-3 in Using and Interpreting Statistics: A Practical Text for the Behavioral, Social, and Health Sciences.
For assistance with using Excel software, use the “Excel Training: Add and Format Tables” video library located on the Microsoft website.
For assistance with using Excel software, use the “Excel Training: Add and Format Charts” video library located on the Microsoft website.
For assistance with using Excel software, use the “Excel Training: Excel for Mac Tips” video library located on the Microsoft website.
View “The Human Insights Missing From Big Data,” by Wang (2016), located on the TED website
View “Data Entry” from the SPSS Tutorials media.
View the following terms in The Visual Learner: Statistics media.
For assistance with using the IBM SPSS software, use the IBM SPSS Statistics Base 24, located on the IBM website.
Read “Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Data in Mixed Methods Research – Challenges and Benefits,” by Almalki, from Journal of Education and Learning (2016).
Read “Pathways to Malaria Persistence in Remote Central Vietnam: A Mixed Method Study of Health Care and the Community,” by Morrow, Nguyen, Curuana, Biggs, Doan, and Nong, from BMC Public Health (2009).
Read “10 Best Resources on Mixed Methods Research in Health Systems,” by Ozawa and Pongpirul, from Health Policy Plan (2014).
Read “A General Inductive Approach for Analyzing Qualitative Evaluation Data,” by Thomas, from American Journal of Evaluation (2006).
Read “Guidance for Using Mixed Methods Design in Nursing Practice Research,” by Chiang-Hanisko, Newman, Dyess, Duangporn, and Liehr, from Applied Nursing Research (2016).
Read “Mapping the Developing Landscape of Mixed Methods Research,” by Creswell, from SAGE Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioral Research (2010).
MUST have at least three citations with the page numbers and three references in APA format and all questions clearly answered in paragraphs.(The List of References should not be older than 2016 and should not be included in the word count.)
Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.
It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT presenting an explanation from the context of ethics and the readings for this class
To get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for this assignments 1) look at the word/page limits 2) review and follow APA rules 3) create subheadings to identify the key sections you are presenting and 4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors.
REMEMBER IN APA FORMAT JOURNAL TITLES AND VOLUME NUMBERS ARE ITALICIZED. Chapter Ten:
Power and Influence
in the Workplace
©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Power, Influence, and Politics at JP Morgan
JPMorgan Chase & Co.
suffered a $7 billion loss
due to the dysfunctional
use of power, influence,
and organizational politics
in the London operations
of its chief investment
© Spencer Platt/Getty Images
The Meaning of Power
The capacity of a person,
team, or organization to
Potential to change attitudes
and behavior (not actual
attempt to change)
Based on targets perception
that power-holder controls a
Requires a minimum level of
trust by both parties
Power involves unequal
© Spencer Platt/Getty Images
Power and Dependence
Jump to Appendix 1 description
Sources and Contingencies of Power
Jump to description
Deference to Authority: Le Jeu de la Mort
French reality television
revealed how far people are
willing to submit to authority.
Only 16 of the 80 contestants
refused to administer the
strongest shocks when another
contestant gave the wrong
answers. Fortunately, the other
contestant was an actor who
didnt actually receive the
© Susana Gonzalez/Bloomberg/Getty Images
Sources of Power in Organization
1- Legitimate Power
Agreement that people in
specific positions can request
behaviors from others
Norm of reciprocity
Obligation to reciprocate favors
Right to distribute information
© Susana Gonzalez/Bloomberg/Getty Images
Other Sources of Power
2- Reward power
Control rewards valued by others, remove negative sanctions
3- Coercive power
Ability to apply punishment
4- Expert Power
* Capacity to influence others by possessing knowledge
or skills that they value
5- Referent power
Capacity to influence others through identification with and
respect for the power holder
Associated with charisma
Contingency of Power
Power increases with
Resource has few or no other sources
Resource has few or no substitutes
By increasing control over the
By differentiating the resource
© CSP_szefei/Fotosearch/age fotostock RF
Other Contingencies of Power
Interdependence with power holder
How many are affected
How quickly others are affected
Known as holder of valued resource
Social interaction, power symbols
Freedom to exercise judgment
Rules limit discretion
© CSP_szefei/Fotosearch/age fotostock RF
Power Through Social Networks
People connected to each other through
forms of interdependence
Goodwill and resulting resources shared in
a social network
Networks offer three power resources
Information (expert power)
Social Network Ties
Offer resources more quickly and plentifully,
but less unique
Offer unique resources, but more slowly
Resources increase with number of ties
Information technology helps, but still a limit
Social Network Centrality
Persons importance in a network
Three factors in centrality
1. Betweennessconnected between others
2. Degree centralitynumber of connections
3. Closenessstronger connections
Example: A has highest centrality due
to all three factors; B has lowest
Any behavior that attempts to alter another persons
attitudes or behavior
Applies one or more power bases
Types of Influence (1 of 3)
Power-holders request or
mere presence influences
Legitimate power (subtle)
Legitimate or coercive
© Wavebreak Media/age fotostock RF
Types of Influence (2 of 3)
Withholding, filtering, restructuring information
Pooling members resources and power to influence others
Claiming higher authority support or showing evidence of that
Types of Influence (3 of 3)
Logical arguments, emotional appeals
Effects of persuader, message, medium, audience
Actively shaping others perceptions or attitudes of us
Self-presentation symbols and behavior
Ingratiationliking by, perceived similarity to, target person
Exchange of resources for desired behavior
Negotiation, reciprocity, social networks
Consequences of Influence (1 of 2)
Oppose the behavior the influencer
Agree to behavior, motivated only by
Identify with behavior, highly
motivated without external sources.
Consequences of Influence (2 of 2)
Jump to Appendix 2 description
Contingencies of Influence
Soft tactics generally more acceptable than hard tactics
Appropriate influence tactic depends on:
Influencers power base
Personal, organizational, cultural values, and expectations
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