University of Business & Technology Organizational Behavior Questions Choose 2 from the 4 following questions and answer them fully with complete justifica

University of Business & Technology Organizational Behavior Questions Choose 2 from the 4 following questions and answer them fully with complete justifications.

A friend suggests that organizational behaviors courses are useful only to people who will enter management careers. Discuss the accuracy of your friend’s statement.
Describe the culture of your workplace. As a manger, what type of culture would you like to create? And why?
What sources and contingencies of power existed among the executives and managers in your department and organization. Please explain.
How would you assess your manager’s approach to managing and handling conflict? Please give an example.

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chapters uploaded Chapter One:
Introduction
to the Field of
Organizational Behavior
©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Organizational Behavior is for Everyone!
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© David Hecker/AP Images
Organizational Behavior and Organizations
Organizational behavior
(OB)
• Studies what people think,
feel, and do in and around
organizations
Organizations
• Groups of people who work
interdependently toward
some purpose
• Collective entities
• Collective sense of purpose
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© David Hecker/AP Images
Importance of OB
Vital to an organization’s
survival and success
Important for people in all
jobs
• Comprehend and predict
workplace events
• Adopt more accurate
personal theories
• Influence organizational
events
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© David Hecker/AP Images
Why study organizational behavior?
Comprehend and
predict work events
(satisfy curiosity, reduce
anxiety, predict future
events)
Why
OB?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Influence
organizational events
Adapt more accurate
personal theories
(work well with others,
accomplish personal and
org goals
(confirm and refine
personal theories, correct
false common sense)
Contemporary Developments Facing Organization
Technological Change
Globalization
Emerging Employment Relationships
Increasing Workforce Diversity
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Technological Change
Long history as a disruptive force in organizations
Effects of technological change
• Higher productivity, but displaces employees and occupations
• Alters work relationships and behavior patterns
• Improves health and wellbeing
Effects of information technology
• Gives employees a stronger voice through communication
with executives
• Worsens work–nonwork overlap, attention span, techno-stress
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Globalization
Economic, social, and cultural connectivity with people
in other parts of the world
Due to better information technology and
transportation systems
Effects of globalization on organizations
• Expands markets, lower costs, increases knowledge
• Affects teamwork, diversity, cultural values, leadership
• Increases competitive pressures and work intensification
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Emerging Employment Relationships
Due to technology, globalization, etc.
• Longer hours, less work-nonwork separation
Work–life balance: degree of conflict between work
and nonwork demands
Remote work
• Working at client sites (e.g. repair technicians)
• Telecommuting (teleworking) – working from home
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Telecommuting Benefits and Problems
Telecommuting benefits
•
•
•
•
•
Better work–life balance
Valued as a work benefit
Higher productivity
Better for the environment
Lower real estate costs for company
Telecommuting disadvantages
• Less connection with coworkers, more social isolation
• Less informal communication to help an individual’s career
• Lower team cohesion, weaker organizational culture
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Increasing Workforce Diversity
Surface-level versus deep-level diversity
Consequences of diversity
• Better team creativity and decisions, but slower team
development
• Easier to recognize and address community needs
• Higher risk of dysfunctional conflict
Diversity is a moral and legal imperative
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Organizational Behavior Anchors (1 of 2)
1- Systematic research anchor
• OB knowledge is built on systematic research
• Evidence-based management
– Not many use
2- Multidisciplinary anchor
• Many OB concepts adopted from other disciplines
• OB develops its own theories, but scans other fields
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Organizational Behavior Anchors (2 of 2)
3- Contingency anchor
• A particular action may have different consequences in
different situations
• Need to diagnose the situation to choose best action
4- Multiple levels of analysis anchor
• Individual, team, organizational level of analysis
• OB topics usually relevant at all three levels of analysis
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Perspectives of Organizational Effectiveness
Organizational effectiveness—composite of four
perspectives:
•
•
•
•
Open systems
Organizational learning
High-performance work practices (HPWP)
Stakeholder
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Open Systems Perspective (1 of 2)
Organizations are complex systems that “live” within
and depend on the external environment
Effective organizations:
• Maintain a close fit with changing conditions
• Transform inputs to outputs efficiently and flexibly
Foundation for the other three organizational
effectiveness perspectives
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Open Systems Perspective (2 of 2)
Jump to Appendix 1 description
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Organizational Learning Perspective
An organization’s capacity to acquire, share, use, and
store valuable knowledge
Consider both the stock and flow of knowledge
• Stock: intellectual capital
• Flow: acquisition, sharing, use, and storage processes
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Hootsuite/Flickr/CC BY 2.0
Intellectual Capital
Human Capital
Knowledge that people
possess and generate
Structural Capital
Knowledge captured in
systems and structures
Relationship Capital
Value derived from
satisfied customers,
reliable suppliers, etc.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Organizational Learning Processes
Storing Knowledge
Acquiring Knowledge
• Human memory
• Documentation
• Knowledge transfer
• Practices and habits
• Individual learning (external)
* training
* observing
• Environmental scanning
• Hiring and grafting
• Experimenting
Using Knowledge
• Sense making (locating knowledge)
• Requisite skills
• Autonomy to apply knowledge
• Learning orientation culture
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Sharing Knowledge
• Communicating
• Individual learning (internal)
* training
* observing
• Info systems
High-Performance Work Practices Perspective
Workplace practices that enhance human capital
How HPWPs improve effectiveness:
• Develop employee skills and knowledge
• Adapting better to rapidly changing environments
• Better motivation and attitudes toward the employer
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Stakeholder Perspective
Understand, manage, satisfy
stakeholder needs
Challenges:
• Conflicting interests
• Firm’s limited resources
Stakeholders: individuals,
groups or entities who affect or
are affected by the firm’s
objectives and actions
©McGraw-Hill Education.
©MTN Group
Stakeholders and CSR
Stakeholder perspective includes corporate social
responsibility (CSR)
• Benefit society and environment beyond the firm’s immediate
financial interests or legal obligations
• Organization’s implicit contract with society
Triple bottom line
• Economy, society, environment
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Corporate Social Responsibility at MTN
At MTN Group, Africa’s largest mobile (cell) phone company,
employees help the local community and the environment
through the company’s award-winning “21 Days of Y’ello Care”
program. This photo shows MTN employees installing solar
panels at a rural school in Rwanda.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© MTN Group
Stakeholders: Values and Ethics
Personal values influence how corporate boards and
CEOs allocate organizational resources
Values
• Stable, evaluative beliefs that guide preferences for outcomes
or courses of action in various situations
Ethics
• Moral principles or values, determine whether actions are
right or wrong and whether outcomes are good or bad
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Integrative Model of OB
Jump to Appendix 2 for description
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter Ten:
Power and Influence
in the Workplace
©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Power, Influence, and Politics at JP Morgan
JPMorgan Chase & Co.
suffered a $7 billion loss
due to the dysfunctional
use of power, influence,
and organizational politics
in the London operations
of its chief investment
office.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© Spencer Platt/Getty Images
The Meaning of Power
The capacity of a person,
team, or organization to
influence others
• Potential to change attitudes
and behavior (not actual
attempt to change)
• Based on target’s perception
that power-holder controls a
valuable resource
• Requires a minimum level of
trust by both parties
• Power involves unequal
dependence
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© Spencer Platt/Getty Images
Power and Dependence
Jump to Appendix 1 description
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Sources and Contingencies of Power
Jump to description
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Deference to Authority: Le Jeu de la Mort
French reality television
revealed how far people are
willing to submit to authority.
Only 16 of the 80 contestants
refused to administer the
strongest shocks when another
contestant gave the wrong
answers. Fortunately, the other
contestant was an actor who
didn’t actually receive the
shocks.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© Susana Gonzalez/Bloomberg/Getty Images
Sources of Power in Organization
1- Legitimate Power
Agreement that people in
specific positions can request
behaviors from others
Norm of reciprocity
• Obligation to reciprocate favors
Information control
• Right to distribute information
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© Susana Gonzalez/Bloomberg/Getty Images
Other Sources of Power
2- Reward power
• Control rewards valued by others, remove negative sanctions
3- Coercive power
• Ability to apply punishment
4- Expert Power
* Capacity to influence others by possessing knowledge
or skills that they value
5- Referent power
• Capacity to influence others through identification with and
respect for the power holder
• Associated with charisma
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Contingency of Power
* Nonsubstitutability
Power increases with
nonsubstitutability
• Resource has few or no other sources
• Resource has few or no substitutes
Nonsubstitutability increases:
• By increasing control over the
resource
• By differentiating the resource
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© CSP_szefei/Fotosearch/age fotostock RF
Other Contingencies of Power
Centrality
• Interdependence with power holder
• How many are affected
• How quickly others are affected
Visibility
• Known as holder of valued resource
• Social interaction, power symbols
Discretion
• Freedom to exercise judgment
• Rules limit discretion
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© CSP_szefei/Fotosearch/age fotostock RF
Power Through Social Networks
Social networks
• People connected to each other through
forms of interdependence
Social capital
• Goodwill and resulting resources shared in
a social network
A
Networks offer three power resources
• Information (expert power)
• Visibility
• Referent power
©McGraw-Hill Education.
B
Social Network Ties
Strong ties
• Close-knit relationships
• Offer resources more quickly and plentifully,
but less unique
Weak ties
A
• Acquaintances
• Offer unique resources, but more slowly
Many ties
• Resources increase with number of ties
• Information technology helps, but still a limit
©McGraw-Hill Education.
B
Social Network Centrality
Person’s importance in a network
Three factors in centrality
1. Betweenness—connected between others
2. Degree centrality—number of connections
3. Closeness—stronger connections
Example: “A” has highest centrality due
to all three factors; “B” has lowest
centrality
©McGraw-Hill Education.
A
B
Influencing Others
Any behavior that attempts to alter another person’s
attitudes or behavior
Applies one or more power bases
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Types of Influence (1 of 3)
Silent authority
• Power-holder’s request or
mere presence influences
behavior
• Legitimate power (subtle)
Assertiveness
• Vocal authority—reminding,
checking, bullying
• Legitimate or coercive
power
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© Wavebreak Media/age fotostock RF
Types of Influence (2 of 3)
Information control
• Withholding, filtering, restructuring information
Coalition formation
• Pooling members’ resources and power to influence others
Upward appeal
• Claiming higher authority support or showing evidence of that
support
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Types of Influence (3 of 3)
Persuasion
• Logical arguments, emotional appeals
• Effects of persuader, message, medium, audience
Impression management
• Actively shaping others’ perceptions or attitudes of us
• Self-presentation symbols and behavior
• Ingratiation—liking by, perceived similarity to, target person
Exchange
• Exchange of resources for desired behavior
• Negotiation, reciprocity, social networks
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Consequences of Influence (1 of 2)
RESISTANCE
Oppose the behavior the influencer
wants.
COMPLIANCE
Agree to behavior, motivated only by
external sources.
COMMITMENT
Identify with behavior, highly
motivated without external sources.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Consequences of Influence (2 of 2)
Jump to Appendix 2 description
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Contingencies of Influence
Soft tactics generally more acceptable than hard tactics
Appropriate influence tactic depends on:
• Influencer’s power base
• Organizational positions
• Personal, organizational, cultural values, and expectations
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter Eleven:
Conflict and
Negotiation in
the Workplace
©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Dysfunctional Conflict in the Air
Overt conflict is rare among commercial airline crew
members. But when these clashes do occur, the
consequences can be costly for the airline and
inconvenient for passengers.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© Westend61/Getty Images RF
Is Conflict Good or Bad?
Negative Outcomes
• Lower performance
• Higher stress, dissatisfaction,
and turnover
• Less information sharing and
coordination
• Increased organizational
politics
• Wasted resources
• Weakened team cohesion
(conflict among team
members)
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Positive Outcomes
• Better decision making
— Tests logic of arguments
— Questions assumptions
• More responsive to the
changing environment
• Stronger team cohesion
(conflict between the team
and outside opponents)
Encouraging Task Conflict at Amazon
One of Amazon’s principles is
that their leaders are
obligated to “respectfully
challenge decisions when
they disagree, even when
doing so is uncomfortable or
exhausting.” Insiders point
out that “respectfully
challenge” means
encouraging task conflict,
not relationship conflict.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© Gary Burchell/Getty Images
Emerging View: Task Versus Relationship Conflict
Task conflict
• Focus on the issue, not
other’s competence
• Debate clarifies and tests
logic
Relationship conflict
• Try to undermine
opponent’s worth or
competence
• Relies on status, assertive
behavior
• Threatens self-concept,
reduces trust
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© Gary Burchell/Getty Images
Separating Task from Relationship Conflict
Problem: Relationship
conflict often develops
during task conflict
Tools to minimize
relationship conflict
• Emotional intelligence and
emotional stability
• Cohesive team
• Supportive team norms
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© Gary Burchell/Getty Images
The Conflict Process
Jump to description
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Structural Sources of Conflict (1 of 2)
1. Incompatible goals
• Goals of one party perceived to interfere with other’s goals
2. Differentiation
• Different training, values, beliefs, and experiences
3. Interdependence
• Required for conflict
• Risk of conflict increased with level
of interdependence
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© donskarpo/Shutterstock RF
Structural Sources of Conflict (2 of 2)
4. Scarce resources
• Motivates competition for the resource
5. Ambiguous rules
• Create uncertainty, higher threat to individual goals
6. Communication problems
• Lack of opportunity to communicate
• Lack of skills to communicate
diplomatically
• Motivation to communicate
reduced by conflict
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© donskarpo/Shutterstock RF
Interpersonal Conflict-Handling Styles
Jump to description
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Conflict-Handling Style Contingencies (1 of 3)
Problem solving
• Best when:
– Interests are not perfectly opposing
– Parties have trust and openness
– Issues are complex
• Problems: takes time; information increases other’s power
Forcing
• Best when:
– Accompanied by a deep conviction about the position
– Quick resolution required
– The other party would take advantage of cooperation
• Problems: can result in relationship conflict and damage longterm relations
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Conflict-Handling Style Contingencies (2 of 3)
Avoiding
• Best when:
– Conflict is emotionally-charged (relationship conflict)
– Conflict resolution cost is higher than benefits
• Problems: doesn’t resolve conflict; causes frustration
Yielding
• Best when:
– Other party has much more power
– Issue is much less important to you than other party
– The value or logic of your position is imperfect
• Problems: increases other’s expectations; imperfect solution

©McGraw-Hill Education.
Conflict-Handling Style Contingencies (3 of 3)
Compromising
• Best when:
– Parties have equal power
– Quick solution is required
– Parties lack trust or openness
• Problem: Sub-optimal solution where mutual gains are
possible
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Cultural and Gender Differences in Conflict-Handling Styles
Cultural differences
• E.g. collectivist cultures: more avoidance and problem-solving
• Be sensitive to preferred conflict handling across cultures
Gender differences
• Men use forcing style more, women less
• Female managers use avoiding style more
• Women use problem solving, compromising, yielding slightly
more
• Reasons: motivation or expectations to maintain relationships
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Managing Intergenerational Conflict at L’Oréal Canada
L’Oréal Canada introduced
Valorizing Intergenerational
Differences, a full-day
seminar that minimizes
intergenerational conflict by
helping employees
understand and value each
other’s perceptions, values,
and expectations.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© 2013 L‘Oréal Canada Inc./Christinne Muschi.
Structural Approaches to Conflict Management (1 of 2)
1. Emphasize superordinate
goals
– Focus on common goals
2. Reduce differentiation
– Create common experiences
3. Improve communication
and understanding
– Contact hypothesis and
Johari window activities
– First, reduce differentiation
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© 2013 L‘Oréal Canada Inc./Christinne Muschi.
Structural Approaches to Conflict Management (2 of 2)
4. Reduce interdependence
– Create buffers
– Use integrators
– Combine jobs into one
5. Increase resources
– Weigh costs versus conflict
6. Clarify rules and
procedures
– Clarify roles, responsibilities,
schedules, etc.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
© 2013 L‘Oréal Canada Inc./Christinne Muschi.
Types of Third-Party Intervention
Jump to description
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Negotiation: Definition and Approaches
Parties attempt to resolve divergent goals by redefining
the terms of their interdependence
Distributive approach
• Win–lose orientation
• View that one party loses when the other party gains
• Most common when the parties have only one item to resolve
Integrative (mutual gains) ap…
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